|<<||Selected anniversaries for January||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page
2018 day arrangement
- 1739 – Bouvet Island (pictured) in the South Atlantic Ocean, the most remote island in the world, was discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier.
- 1801 – Pursuant to the Acts of Union 1800, Great Britain and Ireland merged to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
- 1914 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the U.S. state of Florida became the first scheduled airline using a winged aircraft.
- 1965 – The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, which later helped the country become a republic, was founded.
- 2007 – Adam Air Flight 574 crashed into the sea off Polewali, Indonesia, killing all 102 people on board, when the pilots inadvertently disconnected the autopilot.
- 1680 – Trunajaya rebellion: Amangkurat II of Mataram of Java and his bodyguards stabbed Trunajaya to death a week after the rebel leader surrendered to the Dutch.
- 1865 – Uruguayan War: Brazilian and Colorado Party forces captured the city of Paysandú from its Uruguayan defenders.
- 1941 – Second World War: Llandaff Cathedral (pictured) in Cardiff, Wales, was severely damaged by German bombing during the Cardiff Blitz.
- 1967 – Former actor Ronald Reagan began his career in government when he was sworn in as the 33rd Governor of California.
- 2004 – The Stardust space probe flew by the comet Wild 2 and collected particle samples from its coma, which were later returned to Earth.
- 1749 – The first issue of Berlingske, Denmark's oldest continually operating newspaper, was published.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: American forces under General George Washington defeated British troops at the Battle of Princeton (pictured).
- 1919 – Emir Faisal of Iraq signed an agreement with Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann on the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine and an Arab nation in a large part of the Middle East.
- 1976 – The multilateral International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, part of the International Bill of Human Rights, came into effect.
- 1990 – United States invasion of Panama: General Manuel Noriega, the deposed "strongman of Panama", surrendered to American forces.
- 1798 – After having been invested as Prince of Wallachia, Constantine Hangerli arrived in Bucharest to assume the throne.
- 1885 – Sino-French War: French troops under General François Oscar de Négrier defeated a numerically superior Qing Chinese force at Núi Bop in northern Vietnam.
- 1912 – The Boy Scout Association was incorporated throughout the then British Empire by royal charter.
- 1948 – Burma achieved independence from the British Empire, with Sao Shwe Thaik (pictured) as its first president.
- 2007 – Nancy Pelosi became Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, becoming the highest-ranking woman in the history of the U.S. government.
- 1675 – Franco-Dutch War: The French Army fought against the armies of Austria and Brandenburg.
- 1925 – Nellie Tayloe Ross (pictured) was inaugurated as Governor of Wyoming, the first woman to serve as governor of a U.S. state.
- 1941 – Second World War: Australian and British troops defeated Italian forces in Bardia, Libya, the first battle of the war in which an Australian Army formation took part.
- 1968 – Alexander Dubček came to power in Czechoslovakia, beginning a period of political liberalization known as the Prague Spring that ended with a military intervention by the Warsaw Pact nations to halt reform.
- 2008 – Mikheil Saakashvili was decisively re-elected as President of Georgia in "the first genuinely competitive presidential election" in the history of the country.
- 1066 – Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon king before the Norman conquest, was crowned King of England.
- 1912 – German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presented his theory of continental drift.
- 1941 – During his State of the Union Address, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt presented his Four Freedoms as fundamental freedoms humans everywhere in the world ought to enjoy.
- 1953 – The first Asian Socialist Conference, an organisation of socialist political parties in Asia, opened in Rangoon, Burma, with 177 delegates, observers and fraternal guests.
- 1994 – Two-time American Olympic figure skating medalist Nancy Kerrigan (pictured) was hit on the leg with a police baton by an assailant hired by the ex-husband of her rival Tonya Harding.
- 1610 – Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei (pictured) made his first observation of the four Galilean moons through his telescope: Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa, although he was not able to distinguish the latter two until the following day.
- 1948 – Air National Guard pilot Thomas Mantell, flying in pursuit of an alleged UFO, was killed when his P-51 Mustang crashed near Fort Knox, Kentucky.
- 1978 – An article titled "Iran and Red and Black Colonization" was published in the newspaper Ettela'at to attack Ruhollah Khomeini, described as an Indian Sayyed.
- 1979 – The People's Army of Vietnam captured Phnom Penh, deposing Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, which marked the end of large-scale fighting in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.
- 2012 – A hot air balloon flight from Carterton, New Zealand, collided with a power line while landing, causing it to catch fire, disintegrate and crash, killing all eleven people on board.
- 1697 – Scottish student Thomas Aikenhead became the last person in Britain to be executed for blasphemy.
- 1889 – Statistician Herman Hollerith received a patent for his electric tabulating machine, the precursor to modern computers.
- 1936 – Reza Shah issued the Kashf-e hijab decree in Iran, ordering police to physically remove hijabs from any women in public.
- 1978 – Harvey Milk (pictured) took office on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors as the first openly gay man elected into public office in the United States.
- 2010 – Gunmen from an offshoot of the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda attacked the bus transporting the Togo national football team to the Africa Cup of Nations, killing three.
- 475 – Basiliscus became Byzantine Emperor after Zeno was forced to flee Constantinople.
- 1909 – Ernest Shackleton, leading the Nimrod Expedition, planted the British flag 97 nautical miles (180 km) from the South Pole (pictured), the furthest south anyone had ever reached at that time.
- 1917 – First World War: Troops of the British Empire defeated Ottoman forces at the Battle of Rafa on the Sinai–Palestine border in present-day Rafah.
- 1972 – The Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association lost to the Milwaukee Bucks, ending a 33-game winning streak, the longest of any team in American professional sports.
- 1996 – First Chechen War: Chechen separatists launched raids in the city of Kizlyar, Dagestan, which turned into a massive hostage crisis involving thousands of civilians.
- 1475 – Moldavian–Ottoman Wars: Moldavian forces under Stephen the Great defeated an Ottoman attack led by Hadım Suleiman Pasha, the Beylerbeyi of Rumelia, near Vaslui in present-day Romania.
- 1812 – New Orleans, the first steamship on the Mississippi River, arrived in its namesake city, to complete its maiden voyage.
- 1929 – The Adventures of Tintin, a series of popular comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, first appeared in a children's supplement to the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle.
- 1966 – India and Pakistan signed the Tashkent Declaration to end the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
- 1993 – The Braer Storm, the strongest extratropical cyclone ever recorded in the North Atlantic, reached its peak intensity.
- 1693 – An intensity XI earthquake, the most powerful in Italian history, struck the island of Sicily.
- 1787 – German-born British astronomer William Herschel discovered two Uranian moons, later named, by his son, Oberon and Titania.
- 1927 – Louis B. Mayer, head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, invited 36 people involved in the film industry to a banquet, where he announced the creation of what would become the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
- 1946 – Albania was proclaimed the People's Republic of Albania, with Enver Hoxha (pictured) as the de facto head of state.
- 1986 – The Gateway Bridge was opened in Brisbane, Australia, the largest prestressed concrete, single box bridge in the world.
- 1554 – Bayinnaung, who later assembled the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, was crowned king of the Burmese Toungoo dynasty.
- 1895 – The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, was founded.
- 1921 – Seeking to restore confidence after the Black Sox Scandal, owners of Major League Baseball teams elected former United States district court judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis (pictured) as the league's first commissioner.
- 1967 – Seventy-three-year-old psychology professor James Bedford became the first person to be cryonically frozen with intent of future resuscitation.
- 2010 – A 7.0 Mw earthquake struck Haiti, affecting an estimated three million people.
- 1435 – Sicut Dudum, forbidding the enslavement of the Guanche natives in Canary Islands by the Spanish, was promulgated by Eugene IV.
- 1847 – The Treaty of Cahuenga was signed, informally ending the fighting of the Mexican–American War in California.
- 1910 – The first public radio broadcast, a live performance of Cavalleria rusticana from the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City, was sent over the airwaves.
- 1972 – Ignatius Kutu Acheampong led a coup d'état to overthrow Prime Minister Kofi Abrefa Busia and President Edward Akufo-Addo of Ghana.
- 2012 – The Italian cruise ship Costa Concordia ran aground on a reef (pictured) off the shore of Isola del Giglio, Tuscany, and partially sank.
- 1900 – Giacomo Puccini's opera Tosca (audio featured), based on the play La Tosca by French dramatist Victorien Sardou, premiered at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome.
- 1933 – Harold Larwood, of the England cricket team, employing the controversial tactic known as Bodyline, bowled a ball into the chest of the Australian cricket captain, Bill Woodfull, during play, an event that was once voted the most important event in cricket history.
- 1943 – Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Charles de Gaulle, and Henri Giraud met in Casablanca to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II.
- 1953 – Josip Broz Tito was inaugurated as the first President of Yugoslavia.
- 1978 – Austrian logician Kurt Gödel, who suffered from an obsessive fear of being poisoned, died of starvation after his wife was hospitalized and unable to cook for him.
- 1885 – American photographer Wilson Bentley took the first known photograph of a snowflake by attaching a bellows camera to a microscope (process pictured).
- 1934 – At least 10,700 people died when an 8.0 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal and the Indian state of Bihar.
- 1951 – Ilse Koch, the wife of the commandant of the Buchenwald and Majdanek concentration camps, was sentenced to life imprisonment by a West German court.
- 1962 – The Derveni papyrus, which dates to 340 BC, making it the oldest surviving manuscript in Europe, was discovered in Macedonia, northern Greece.
- 1975 – Portugal signed the Alvor Agreement with UNITA, the MPLA, and the FNLA, ending the Angolan War of Independence.
- 1809 – Peninsular War: French forces under Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult attacked the amphibious evacuation of the British under Sir John Moore in Corunna, Galicia, Spain.
- 1862 – The beam of a pumping engine broke at the Hartley Colliery in Northumberland, England, and fell down the shaft, trapping the men below and resulting in the deaths of 204.
- 1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler and his staff moved into the Führerbunker (entrance pictured), where he would eventually commit suicide.
- 1986 – The Internet Engineering Task Force, a standards organization that develops and promotes Internet Standards, held its first meeting, consisting of twenty-one United States-government-funded researchers.
- 2016 – After gunmen took hostages the previous night at a restaurant in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, government commandos stormed the premises to bring the situation to an end.
- 1773 – On James Cook's second voyage, his ship HMS Resolution became the first to cross the Antarctic Circle.
- 1893 – Lorrin A. Thurston, along with the Citizens' Committee of Public Safety led the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the government of Queen Liliʻuokalani (pictured).
- 1912 – Robert Falcon Scott's ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition reached the South Pole, only to find that Roald Amundsen's team had beaten them by 33 days.
- 1948 – Indonesian National Revolution: The Renville Agreement between the Netherlands and Indonesian Republicans was ratified, recognising a cease-fire along the "Van Mook Line".
- 1998 – The Drudge Report became the first news source to break the Bill Clinton–Monica Lewinsky scandal to the public
- 1866 – Wesley College, the largest school in Australia by enrolment, was established in Melbourne.
- 1884 – Welsh physician William Price was arrested for attempting to cremate his deceased infant son; he was acquitted in the subsequent trial, which led to the legalisation of cremation in the United Kingdom.
- 1943 – World War II: As part of Operation Iskra, the Soviet Red Army eased the Siege of Leningrad, opening a narrow land corridor to the city.
- 1958 – African Canadian Willie O'Ree of the Boston Bruins played his first game in the National Hockey League, breaking the colour barrier in professional ice hockey.
- 1983 – Thirty years after his death, the International Olympic Committee restored gold medals to American athlete Jim Thorpe (pictured), who had had them stripped for playing semi-professional baseball before the 1912 Summer Olympics.
- 1607 – San Agustin Church (pictured) in Manila, the oldest extant church in the Philippines, was completed.
- 1795 – A day after William V, Prince of Orange, fled the Dutch Republic as a result of the Batavian Revolution, the Batavian Republic was established.
- 1945 – World War II: Soviet forces liberated the Łódź Ghetto; only 877 Jews of the initial population of 164,000 remained at that time.
- 1972 – The French newspaper l'Aurore revealed that the Nazi SS officer Klaus Barbie, the "Butcher of Lyon", had been found to be living in Peru.
- 2007 – Turkish-Armenian journalist and human rights activist Hrant Dink was assassinated by a Turkish nationalist.
Lawrence Kohlberg (d.1987)
- 250 – Pope Fabian was martyred during a widespread persecution of Christians for refusing to demonstrate loyalty to the Roman Empire.
- 1877 – The Constantinople Conference concluded with the Great Powers declaring the need for political reforms that the Ottoman Empire refused to undertake, which later led to the Russo-Turkish War.
- 1942 – The Holocaust: SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich and other senior Nazi officials met at the Wannsee Conference in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to discuss implementation of the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question".
- 1969 – Bengali student activist Amanullah Asaduzzaman was shot and killed by East Pakistani police, one of the catalysts that led to the Bangladesh Liberation War.
- 2007 – A four-man team, using only skis and kites, completed a 1,093-mile (1,759 km) trek to reach the southern pole of inaccessibility (pictured) for the first time since 1967, and for the first time ever without mechanical assistance.
George V (d. 1936)
- 763 – The Abbasid Caliphate crushed the Alid Revolt when one of the rebellion leaders was mortally wounded in battle near Basra in what is now Iraq.
- 1789 – The Power of Sympathy by William Hill Brown, widely considered to be the first American novel, was published.
- 1941 – Sparked by the murder of a German officer the previous day in Bucharest, Romania, members of the Iron Guard engaged in a rebellion and pogrom, killing 125 Jews.
- 1972 – Tripura, part of the former independent Twipra Kingdom, became a full-fledged state in India.
- 1997 – The U.S. House of Representatives voted 395–28 to reprimand Newt Gingrich (pictured) for ethics violations, making him the first Speaker of the House to be so disciplined.
Laura Robson (b. 1994) ·
- 1517 – Ottoman–Mamluk War: Ottoman forces defeated the Egyptian Mamluk army in the Battle of Ridaniya and brought the severed head of the last Mamluk sultan Tuman bay II into Cairo.
- 1689 – The Convention Parliament convened to justify the overthrow of James II, the last Roman Catholic King of England, who had vacated the throne when he fled to France in 1688.
- 1906 – The SS Valencia (pictured) was wrecked off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, in a location so treacherous it was known as the Graveyard of the Pacific.
- 1957 – New York City police arrested George Metesky, better known as the "Mad Bomber", for planting over 30 bombs over 16 years throughout the city.
- 1969 – Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev survived an assassination attempt, an incident that was not revealed to the public until after the fall of the Soviet Union.
- 1264 – King Louis IX of France issued the Mise of Amiens, a settlement between King Henry III of England and barons led by Simon de Montfort heavily favouring the former, which later led to the Second Barons' War.
- 1915 – The Chilembwe uprising, regarded as a key moment in the history of Malawi, began as rebels, led by a minister, attacked local plantation owners.
- 1997 – Madeleine Albright (pictured) was sworn in as the first female United States Secretary of State, becoming the highest-ranking woman in the history of the U.S. government at that time.
- 2001 – Five people attempted to set themselves on fire in Beijing's Tiananmen Square, an act that many people later claimed was staged by the Communist Party of China to frame Falun Gong and thus escalate their persecution.
- 41 – Cassius Chaerea and the disgruntled Praetorian Guards murdered Roman emperor Caligula, replacing him with his uncle Claudius.
- 1458 – The 14-year-old Matthias Corvinus was unanimously proclaimed King of Hungary after the Estates were persuaded to do so by his uncle Michael Szilágyi.
- 1848 – James W. Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill (reconstruction pictured) in Coloma, California, leading to the California Gold Rush.
- 1978 – The Soviet nuclear powered satellite Kosmos 954 burned up during reentry, scattering radioactive debris across Canada's Northwest Territories.
- 2011 – A suicide bomber killed 37 people at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow.
- 1533 – Anne Boleyn, already pregnant with future queen Elizabeth, secretly married Henry VIII of England, the second of his six marriages.
- 1573 – Sengoku period: The forces of Takeda Shingen defeated those of Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Mikatagahara in Mikatagahara, north of Hamamatsu, Mikawa Province.
- 1704 – English colonists from the Province of Carolina and their native allies began a series of raids against a largely pacific population of Apalachee in Spanish Florida.
- 1971 – Idi Amin seized power in a military coup d'état from President Milton Obote, beginning eight years of military rule in Uganda.
- 2004 – Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity (artist's impression pictured) landed on Mars and rolled into Eagle crater, a small crater on the Meridiani Planum.
- 1564 – Livonian War: A Lithuanian surprise attack resulted in a decisive defeat of the numerically superior Russian forces.
- 1808 – Governor of New South Wales William Bligh (pictured) was deposed by the New South Wales Corps in the only successful armed takeover of government in Australia's recorded history.
- 1950 – Indian independence movement: India became a republic under a new constitution, with Rajendra Prasad as its first president.
- 2009 – Rioting broke out in Antananarivo, Madagascar, sparking a political crisis that led to the deposal of President Marc Ravalomanana.
Olga Tufnell (b. 1905) •
- 1142 – Despite having saved the Southern Song dynasty from attempts by the northern Jin dynasty to conquer it, Chinese general Yue Fei was executed by the Song government.
- 1945 – The Soviet Red Army liberated more than 7,500 prisoners left behind by Nazi personnel in the Auschwitz concentration camp in Oświęcim, Poland.
- 1967 – The Apollo 1 fire killed astronauts Gus Grissom, Edward H. White and Roger Chaffee (pictured) at Cape Kennedy Launch Complex 34, and destroyed the spacecraft.
- 1996 – Mahamane Ousmane, the first democratically elected president of Niger, was deposed by Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara in a military coup d'état.
- 2011 – Arab Spring: The Yemeni Revolution began as more than 16,000 protesters demonstrated in Sana'a to demand governmental changes.
- 1393 – King Charles VI of France was nearly killed when several dancers' costumes caught fire during a masquerade ball.
- 1754 – Horace Walpole coined the word "serendipity" in a letter he wrote to a friend, saying that he derived the term from the Persian fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip.
- 1821 – Alexander Island, the largest island of Antarctica, was discovered by explorer Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen of the Imperial Russian Navy.
- 1922 – Snowfall from the biggest recorded snowstorm in Washington, D.C., history caused the roof of the Knickerbocker Theatre to collapse, killing 98 people.
- 1958 – The Lego Group, a Danish toy company, patented the design of Lego bricks (pictured).
- 1856 – Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom established the Victoria Cross, originally to recognise acts of valour by British military personnel during the Crimean War.
- 1891 – Liliʻuokalani, the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, ascended to the throne.
- 1944 – World War II: At least 38 people were killed and about a dozen injured when the Polish village of Koniuchy (present-day Kaniūkai, Lithuania) was attacked by Soviet partisan units.
- 1967 – The Mantra-Rock Dance (poster pictured), called the "ultimate high" of the hippie era, took place in San Francisco, featuring Swami Bhaktivedanta, Janis Joplin, The Grateful Dead, and Allen Ginsberg.
- 2006 – India's Irfan Pathan became the first bowler to take a Test cricket hat-trick in the opening over of a match.
- 1661 – Two years after his death, Oliver Cromwell's remains were exhumed for a posthumous execution and his head was placed on a spike above Westminster Hall in London, where it remained until 1685.
- 1847 – The town of Yerba Buena in Mexican California was renamed San Francisco (pictured).
- 1945 – World War II: Allied forces liberated over 500 prisoners of war from a Japanese POW camp near Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
- 1972 – On Bloody Sunday, members of the British Parachute Regiment shot twenty-six civil rights protesters in Derry, Northern Ireland, killing at least thirteen people.
- 2013 – The Korea Aerospace Research Institute launched Naro-1, South Korea's first carrier rocket and their first launch vehicle to achieve Earth orbit.
Livia (b. 58 BC) ·
- 1862 – American astronomer Alvan Graham Clark first observed the faint white dwarf companion of Sirius (pictured), the brightest star in the night sky.
- 1900 – Datu Muhammad Salleh, leader of a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, was shot dead in Tambunan, but his followers did not give up for five more years.
- 1945 – Second World War: The British 3rd Commando Brigade's victory in the Battle of Hill 170 was crucial in causing the 28th Japanese Army to withdraw from the Arakan peninsula of Burma.
- 2000 – Alaska Airlines Flight 261, experiencing problems with its horizontal stabilizer system, crashed in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California's Anacapa Island, killing all 88 people on board.
Franz Schubert (b. 1797) ·