Portal:Mathematics
The Mathematics Portal
Mathematics is the study of numbers, quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered.
Selected article  Selected picture  Did you know...  Topics in mathematics
Categories  WikiProjects  Things you can do  Index  Related portals
There are approximately 31,444 mathematics articles in Wikipedia.
Selected article
An example of a map projection: the areapreserving Mollweide projection of the earth. Image credit: NASA 
A map projection is any method used in cartography (mapmaking) to represent the dimensional surface of the earth or other bodies. The term "projection" here refers to any function defined on the earth's surface and with values on the plane, and not necessarily a geometric projection.
Flat maps could not exist without map projections, because a sphere cannot be laid flat over a plane without distortions. One can see this mathematically as a consequence of Gauss's Theorema Egregium. Flat maps can be more useful than globes in many situations: they are more compact and easier to store; they readily accommodate an enormous range of scales; they are viewed easily on computer displays; they can facilitate measuring properties of the terrain being mapped; they can show larger portions of the earth's surface at once; and they are cheaper to produce and transport. These useful traits of flat maps motivate the development of map projections.
View all selected articles  Read More... 
Selected picture
This is a graph of a portion of the complexvalued Riemann zeta function along the critical line (the set of complex numbers having real part equal to 1/2). More specifically, it is a graph of Im ζ(1/2 + it) versus Re ζ(1/2 + it) (the imaginary part vs. the real part) for values of the real variable t running from 0 to 34 (the curve starts at its leftmost point, with real part approximately −1.46 and imaginary part 0). The first five zeros along the critical line are visible in this graph as the five times the curve passes through the origin (which occur at t ≈ 14.13, 21.02, 25.01, 30.42, and 32.93 — for a different perspective, see a graph of the real and imaginary parts of this function plotted separately over a wider range of values). In 1914, G. H. Hardy proved that ζ(1/2 + it) has infinitely many zeros. According to the Riemann hypothesis, zeros of this form constitute the only nontrivial zeros of the full zeta function, ζ(s), where s varies over all complex numbers. Riemann's zeta function grew out of Leonhard Euler's study of realvalued infinite series in the early 18th century. In a famous 1859 paper called "On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude", Bernhard Riemann extended Euler's results to the complex plane and established a relation between the zeros of his zeta function and the distribution of prime numbers. The paper also contained the previously mentioned Riemann hypothesis, which is considered by many mathematicians to be the most important unsolved problem in pure mathematics. The Riemann zeta function plays a pivotal role in analytic number theory and has applications in physics, probability theory, and applied statistics.
Did you know...
 ...that in graph theory, a pseudoforest can contain trees and pseudotrees, but cannot contain any butterflies, diamonds, handcuffs, or bicycles?
 ...that it is not possible to configure two mutually inscribed quadrilaterals in the Euclidean plane, but the Möbius–Kantor graph describes a solution in the complex projective plane?
 ...that the six permutations of the vector (1,2,3) form a hexagon in 3D space, the 24 permutations of (1,2,3,4) form a truncated octahedron in four dimensions, and both are examples of permutohedra?
 ...that the Rule 184 cellular automaton can simultaneously model the behavior of cars moving in traffic, the accumulation of particles on a surface, and particleantiparticle annihilation reactions?
 ...that a cyclic cellular automaton is a system of simple mathematical rules that can generate complex patterns mixing random chaos, blocks of color, and spirals?
 ...that a nonconvex polygon with three convex vertices is called a pseudotriangle?
 ...that the axiom of choice is logically independent of the other axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory?
WikiProjects
The Mathematics WikiProject is the center for mathematicsrelated editing on Wikipedia. Join the discussion on the project's talk page.
Project pages
Essays
Subprojects
Related projects
Things you can do
Categories
Algebra  Arithmetic  Analysis  Complex analysis  Applied mathematics  Calculus  Category theory  Chaos theory  Combinatorics  Dynamic systems  Fractals  Game theory  Geometry  Algebraic geometry  Graph theory  Group theory  Linear algebra  Mathematical logic  Model theory  Multidimensional geometry  Number theory  Numerical analysis  Optimization  Order theory  Probability and statistics  Set theory  Statistics  Topology  Algebraic topology  Trigonometry  Linear programming
Mathematics (books)  History of mathematics  Mathematicians  Awards  Education  Literature  Notation  Organizations  Theorems  Proofs  Unsolved problems
Topics in mathematics
General  Foundations  Number theory  Discrete mathematics 



Algebra  Analysis  Geometry and topology  Applied mathematics 
Index of mathematics articles
ARTICLE INDEX:  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (0–9) 
MATHEMATICIANS:  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
Related portals
Algebra  Analysis  Category theory 
Computer science 
Cryptography  Discrete mathematics 
Geometry 
Logic  Mathematics  Number theory 
Physics  Science  Set theory  Statistics  Topology 
 What are portals?
 List of portals