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October 22

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October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 70 days remain until the end of the year.


  • 451 – The Chalcedonian Creed, regarding the divine and human nature of Jesus, is adopted.
  • 794Emperor Kanmu relocates the Japanese capital to Heian-kyō (now Kyoto).
  • 906Ahmad ibn Kayghalagh leads a raid against the Byzantine Empire, taking 4,000–5,000 captives.[1]
  • 1383 – King Fernando dies without a male heir to the Portuguese throne, sparking a period of civil war and disorder.
  • 1575 – Foundation of Aguascalientes City in New Spain.
  • 1633 – The Ming dynasty defeats the Dutch East India Company.
  • 1707 – Four British naval vessels run aground on the Isles of Scilly because of faulty navigation. In response, the first Longitude Act is enacted in 1714.
  • 1721Russian Empire is proclaimed by Tsar Peter I after the Swedish defeat in the Great Northern War.
  • 1730 – Construction of the Ladoga Canal is completed.
  • 1746 – The College of New Jersey (later renamed Princeton University) receives its charter.
  • 1777 – American Revolutionary War: American defenders of Fort Mercer on the Delaware River repulse repeated Hessian attacks in the Battle of Red Bank.
  • 1784 – Russia founds a colony on Kodiak Island, Alaska.
  • 1797André-Jacques Garnerin makes the first recorded parachute jump, from one thousand meters (3,200 feet) above Paris.
  • 1836Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.
  • 1844 – Millerites, followers of anticipate the end of the world in conjunction with the Second Advent of Christ. The following day became known as the Great Disappointment.
  • 1859 – Spain declares war on Morocco.
  • 1866 – A plebiscite ratifies the annexion of Veneto and Mantua to Italy, which had occurred three days before, on October 19.
  • 1875 – First telegraphic connection in Argentina.
  • 1877 – The Blantyre mining disaster in Scotland kills 207 miners.
  • 1878 – The Bramall Lane stadium sees the first rugby match played under floodlights.
  • 1879 – Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasts 13½ hours before burning out).
  • 1883 – The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City opens with a performance of Gounod's Faust.
  • 1884 – The Royal Observatory in Britain is adopted as the prime meridian of longitude.
  • 1895 – In Paris an express train derails after overrunning the buffer stop, crossing almost 30 metres (100 ft) of concourse before crashing through a wall and falling 10 metres (33 ft) to the road below.
  • 1907 – A run on the stock of the Knickerbocker Trust Company sets events in motion that will spark the Panic of 1907.
  • 1910Hawley Harvey Crippen (the first felon to be arrested with the help of radio) is convicted of poisoning his wife.
  • 1923 – The royalist Leonardopoulos–Gargalidis coup d'état attempt fails in Greece, discrediting the monarchy and paving the way for the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic.
  • 1928Phi Sigma Alpha fraternity is founded at the University of Puerto Rico.
  • 1934 – In East Liverpool, Ohio, FBI agents shoot and kill notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd.
  • 1941 – World War II: French resistance member Guy Môquet and 29 other hostages are executed by the Germans in retaliation for the death of a German officer.
  • 1943 – World War II: in the Second firestorm raid on Germany, the RAF conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless.
  • 1946Operation Osoaviakhim takes place, recruiting of thousands of military-related technical specialists from the Soviet occupation zone of post–World War II Germany for employment in the Soviet Union.
  • 1947 – The Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan begins, having started just after the partition of India.
  • 1957Vietnam War: First United States casualties in Vietnam.
  • 1962Cuban Missile Crisis: President Kennedy, after internal counsel from Dwight D. Eisenhower, announces that American reconnaissance planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered a naval "quarantine" of the Communist nation.
  • 1963 – A BAC One-Eleven prototype airliner crashes in UK with the loss of all on board.
  • 1964Jean-Paul Sartre is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, but turns down the honor.
  • 1964 – An all-party Parliamentary Committee selects the design which will become the new official flag of Canada.
  • 1966 – The Supremes become the first all-female music group to attain a No. 1 selling album (The Supremes A' Go-Go).
  • 1966 – The Soviet Union launches Luna 12.
  • 1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 7 safely splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean after orbiting the Earth 163 times.
  • 1975 – The Soviet unmanned space mission Venera 9 lands on Venus.
  • 1976Red Dye No. 4 is banned by the US Food and Drug Administration after it is discovered that it causes tumors in the bladders of dogs.
  • 1981 – The United States Federal Labor Relations Authority votes to decertify the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) for its strike the previous August.
  • 1983 – Two correctional officers are killed by inmates at the United States Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois. The incident inspires the Supermax model of prisons.
  • 1999Maurice Papon, an official in the Vichy France government during World War II, is jailed for crimes against humanity.
  • 2001Grand Theft Auto III is released, popularizing a genre of open-world, action-adventure video games, as well as spurring controversy around violence in video games.
  • 2005Tropical Storm Alpha forms in the Atlantic Basin, making the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record with 22 named storms.
  • 2005 – Bellview Airlines Flight 210 crashes in Nigeria, killing all 117 people on board.
  • 2006 – A Panama Canal expansion proposal is approved by 77.8% of voters in a National referendum.
  • 2007 – A raid on Anuradhapura Air Force Base is carried out by 21 Tamil Tiger commandos. All except one die in this attack. Eight Sri Lanka Air Force planes are destroyed and 10 damaged.
  • 2008 – India launches its first unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-1.
  • 2013 – The Australian Capital Territory becomes the first Australian jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage with the Marriage Equality (Same Sex) Act 2013
  • 2014 – Michael Zehaf-Bibeau attacks the Parliament of Canada, killing a soldier and injuring three other people.



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  1. ^ Rosenthal 1985, pp. 172, 180.