Kenyan general election, 2017

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Kenyan presidential election, 2017
Kenya
← 2013 8 August 2017 (2017-08-08) 2022 →

19,743,716 registered voters
50% + 1 vote (nationally) and 25% in (each of at least) 24 counties votes needed to win
  Uhuru Kenyatta.jpg Raila Odinga 2009.jpg
Nominee Uhuru Kenyatta Raila Odinga
Party Jubilee ODM
Alliance Jubilee Alliance NASA
Running mate William Ruto Kalonzo Musyoka
Percentage 54.27% 44.74%

President before election

Uhuru Kenyatta
Jubilee

President Elect

Uhuru Kenyatta
Jubilee

General elections were held in Kenya on 8 August 2017 to elect the President, members of Parliament and devolved governments.[1] Incumbent President Uhuru Kenyatta was returned to office with 54% of the vote, a result his main opponent, Raila Odinga, refused to accept.

Background[edit]

The Kenyan Constitution requires there to be a general election on the second Tuesday in August in every fifth year.[2] There have been public discussions to move the date from August to December with proponents pointing to fiscal timeline (1 July – 30 June) clashing with an August date because most ministries that support critical election processes will not have been fully funded and that a possible presidential runoff vote may interfere with the national examinations calendar of October and December.[3] Opponents of the election date change have argued for protecting the constitutional provision and that any change would be mired by legal challenges and may drag on to the next elections and still require a referendum to decide, putting the country's stability at risk.[3]

On 7 August 2017, one day before the election, Barack Obama, who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017 and whose father was Kenyan, called for calm and acceptance of the election results.[4] The intervention was noted by the media as unprecedented.[4]

Electoral system[edit]

The President of Kenya is elected using a modified version of the two-round system: to win in the first round, a candidate must receive over 50% of the vote and 25% of the vote in at least 24 counties out of the 47 counties.[5][6]

The 337 members of the National Assembly are elected by two methods; 290 are elected in single-member constituencies by first-past-the-post voting. The remaining 47 are reserved for women, and are elected from single-member constituencies based on the 47 counties, also using the first-past-the-post system.[7] The 67 members of the Senate are elected by four methods; 47 are elected in single-member constituencies based on the counties by first-past-the-post voting. Parties are then assigned a share of 16 seats for women, two for youth and two for disabled people based on their seat share.[8]

Party primaries[edit]

The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission set the duration for political parties to conduct their primaries in April 2017 following the review of Kenya's Election Laws. Parties would have 14 days between 20 April and 2 May to conduct their primaries and submit their candidates to the electoral commission.[9]

Pre-election violence[edit]

William Ruto home siege[edit]

On 29 July 2017, Deputy President William Ruto's house was attacked by a local man armed with a machete.[10] During the siege, the deputy president and his family were not present. The assailant first injured the guard on duty, held him hostage and then killed him. The siege lasted 18 hours before the Kenyan Police special forces shot the attacker dead. The motives of the attacker were unknown and members of the public were unaware how a man armed with a machete held the elite police forces for 18 hours.[11][12]

Msando murder[edit]

On 27 July 2017, two bodies were found on the outskirts of Nairobi. One of the dead, Christopher Msando, was the head of information, communication, and technology at the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission.[13] He played a major role in developing the new voting system for the election.[14] His body showed clear marks of torture before he was murdered for unclear reasons. Alongside it was the body of a 21-year-old woman, Maryanne Ngumbu.[15] The FBI and Scotland Yard offered to help in the investigation.[16]

Results[edit]

President[edit]

Candidate Running mate Party Votes %
Uhuru Kenyatta William Ruto Jubilee Party of Kenya 8,203,290 54.27
Raila Odinga Kalonzo Musyoka National Super Alliance 6,762,334 44.74
Joseph Nyagah Moses Marango Independent 42,259 0.28
Abduba Dida Titus Ngetuny Alliance for Real Change 38,093 0.25
Ekuru Aukot Emmanuel Nzai Thirdway Alliance Kenya 27,311 0.18
Japheth Kaluyu Muthiora Kariara Independent 16,482 0.11
Michael Mwaura Miriam Mutua Independent 13,257 0.09
Cyrus Jirongo Joseph Momanyi United Democratic Party 11,705 0.08
Invalid/blank votes
Total 100
Registered voters/turnout 19,743,716
Source: IEBC

Though Kenyatta and Odinga were virtually tied in opinion polls leading up to the election, the outcome was reported as a 10-percentage-point victory for Kenyatta.[17] On 10 August, provisional results released by the Kenyan electoral commission put Kenyatta ahead by 54.2% to Odinga's 44%. The head of the EU delegation Marietje Schaake said there had been no sign of manipulation of the result at central or local level and urged all sides to accept the result.[18]

Despite the results being heavily rejected by the National Super Alliance, the Independent Electoral and Boundaries commission (IEBC) declared incumbents Uhuru Kenyatta and William Ruto as president-elect and deputy president-elect respectively on the evening of 11 August 2017.

Governors[edit]

Three women were elected as governors of their respective counties – Joyce Laboso of Bomet County, Charity Ngilu of Kitui County, and Anne Waiguru of Kirinyaga County. 22 out of 47 governors lost their seats as well.[19]

Senate[edit]

Three women, Uasin Gishu’s Margaret Kamar, Susan Kihika of Nakuru and Fatuma Dullo of Isiolo became the first women in Kenya's history to be elected to the Senate rather than appointed.[20]

National Assembly[edit]

Projected results indicated that the Jubilee party will extend their majority in the both the Kenyan National Assembly and Kenyan Senate and have enough seats to be considered unassailable.[21]

Reactions[edit]

Domestic[edit]

Opposition leader Raila Odinga alleged that the results had been tampered with by hackers.[22] He offered no evidence to justify his claim, which the head of Kenya's electoral commission dismissed.[23] Following the election, there were protests in Kisumu, Kibera and Mathare where Odinga enjoys major political support, some of which turned violent and deadly.[22] Odinga published his own results, which put him ahead, and claimed that the commission's IT system had been hacked and that Kenya had seen the worst "voter theft" in its history.[24] The chairman of the electoral commission, Wafula Chebukati, responded that his organization was the only body allowed to count votes and that while there had been an attempt to hack the commission, it had failed.[24] A week after the vote, Odinga announced he would challenge the results in Kenya's Supreme Court.

The Economist did its own count of a sample of paper ballots, which tallied with the electronic results.[25]

Kenyatta's reaction incorporated invitations to several world leaders to his inauguration, including: former US President Barack Obama; German Chancellor Angela Merkel; British Prime Minister Theresa May; Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi; China President Xi Jinping; Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf; Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhar; Rwanda President Paul Kagame; Uganda President Yoweri Museveni; Tanzania President John Magufuli; South Africa President Jacob Zuma; His Royal Highness Aga Khan IV; and Nigerian billionaire tycoon Aliko Dangote.[26]

International[edit]

African Union African Union: The AU mission led by Thabo Mbeki commended the Kenyan people on conducting the election in a peaceful environment. The AU acknowledged the dispute by the opposition, however, Mbeki refused to get involved in the investigation, citing the lack of mandate.[27]

  • United States Carter Center: The mission headed by John Kerry commended the Kenyan people in conducting the election peacefully. The Carter Center also commended the role of the judiciary throughout the entire electoral process.[28] Kerry urged that all disputes with the election be handled within the law.[29]
  • Commonwealth of Nations Commonwealth of Nations: The Chair of the Commonwealth Observer Group, former President of Ghana John Mahama, declared in the group's interim statement that the Kenyan elections across all six levels of government has been "credible, fair and inclusive". He appealed for continued patience as the results continue to be finalised. On allegations of fraud by the opposition leader, Mahama called for political leaders to show "restraint and magnanimity".[30]
  • East African Community East African Community: The EAC mission led by Edward Rugumayo also said that the election conducted was free and fair and that the observer team was also satisfied with the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission's response to the hacking claims.[28] The commission also appealed for patience towards journalists until the final results are published.[31]
  • European Union European Union: The EU observer team deemed the election free and fair, and commended the role of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission. It expressed concern, however, about the high number of spoilt ballots.[31]

Aftermath[edit]

On 13 August, police said a total of 16 people have been killed in recent protests.[32]

Inaugurations[edit]

It was announced on 13 August that the new Parliament would be sworn in on 22 August, with Kenyatta's second inauguration to follow a week later.[33] However, Kenyatta's inauguration was pushed back to at least September 12 after Odinga agreed to challenge the results in court.[34] It was later announced that the reconvening of the Kenyan parliament was delayed to no later than September 7 due to a petition which was filed by groups affiliated with the Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya (FIDA- Kenya) over the new parliament's lack of women needed to meet the two-thirds gender rule criteria.[35] Despite the FIDA- Kenya lawsuit, the IEBC announced on August 22 that it will publish the full list of elected Members of the National Assembly and Members of County Assembly later that day and that the gender-rule lawsuit will not be heard in court until September 20;[36] the IEBC had already published the final results and names of the 47 Governors, Woman Representatives and Senators on August 14.[36] The Standard later reported that the Kenyan Parliament will reconvene in the next week.[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IEBC announces 2017 election date Daily Nation, 10 December 2015
  2. ^ 101. Election of members of Parliament Constitution of Kenya, Chapter Eight, Article 101]
  3. ^ a b Majority MPs back election date change from August to December Daily Nation, 6 August 2015
  4. ^ a b Baker, Peter (7 August 2017). "Obama Weighs In on Kenyan Election, Urging Calm". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2017. 
  5. ^ Presidential Candidates Kenya Diaspora Vote
  6. ^ Article 138 (4) Constitution of Kenya 2010
  7. ^ Electoral system Inter-Parliamentary Union
  8. ^ art.90(3) constitution of Kenya
  9. ^ Party primaries slotted for April as IEBC reviews timelines ahead of polls The Star, 10 February 2017
  10. ^ "Kenya Deputy President Ruto's home entered by knifeman". BBC News. 29 July 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  11. ^ Team, Standard. "More questions as 18-hour siege at Ruto’s residence end". The Standard. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  12. ^ "Kenyan police: Man with machete attacks VP Ruto's home". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  13. ^ Freytas-tamura, Kimiko De (31 July 2017). "Kenyan Election Official Is Killed on Eve of Vote". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  14. ^ Burke, Jason (31 July 2017). "Kenyan election official 'tortured and murdered' as fears of violence grow". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  15. ^ "Woman found alongside murdered IEBC's Msando identified » Capital News". Capital News. 1 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  16. ^ "Msando murder: Hire foreign IT experts, accept FBI, Scotland Yard help – NASA". The Star, Kenya. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  17. ^ Adrian Bloomfield (9 August 2017). "Uhuru Kenyatta on course for re-election in Kenya as Raila Odinga says he rejects preliminary results". The Telegraph. 
  18. ^ Burke, Jason (10 August 2017). "Kenya election monitors urge losing candidates to accept poll results". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  19. ^ "Jubilee wins more than half governor races". Daily Nation. Retrieved 2017-08-12. 
  20. ^ "History as Kenya set to have first elected women senators". Daily Nation. August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  21. ^ http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001251182/jubilee-party-national-super-alliance-battle-now-heads-to-parliament.
  22. ^ a b "Protests over election fraud claim turn deadly in Kenya". Al Jazeera. 9 August 2017. 
  23. ^ Aglionby, John; Pilling, David (9 August 2017). "Kenya opposition leader Raila Odinga claims election fraud". Financial Times. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  24. ^ a b "Kenya election 2017: Odinga supporters warned over claims". BBC News. 11 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  25. ^ "Kenya's election may turn nasty as the opposition disputes the count". economist.com. 10 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  26. ^ http://www.tuko.co.ke/249209-list-barack-obama-11-world-leaders-invited-uhurus-swearing-ceremony.html
  27. ^ "Mbeki: AU has no mandate to probe 'hacking' claims in Kenya polls... at least for now". News24. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  28. ^ a b "Kenya election was fair, no sign of manipulation – EAC, EU observers". The Star, Kenya. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  29. ^ "The Latest: Kerry urges Kenya to resolve any vote disputes". WFMZ. 10 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  30. ^ "Kenyan elections 'credible, fair and inclusive' – Chair of Commonwealth Observer Group". thecommonwealth.org. 10 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  31. ^ a b "EU observers urge poll losers to concede or follow judicial process » Capital News". Capital News. 10 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  32. ^ "Protest death toll rises to 7: police". Pulse Nigeria. 13 August 2017. 
  33. ^ President Uhuru, DP Ruto to be sworn in on August 29 Standard Digital, 14 August 2017
  34. ^ "Kenya: Uhuru Kenyatta's Swearing-in Plan Put On Hold". allAfrica. 16 August 2017. 
  35. ^ http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2017/08/12th-parliament-convenes-not-later-sept-7-amid-gender-row/
  36. ^ a b http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2017/08/members-parliament-mcas-gazetted-wednesday/
  37. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CiYqqf93mgk