Musk in 2015
|Born||Elon Reeve Musk
June 28, 1971
Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa
|Residence||Bel Air, Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
|Occupation||Entrepreneur, engineer, inventor, and investor|
|Net worth||US$20.1 billion (February 2018)|
Elon Reeve Musk (/ /; born June 28, 1971) is a South African-born Canadian American business magnate, investor, engineer, and inventor. He is the founder, CEO, and lead designer of SpaceX; co-founder, CEO, and product architect of Tesla, Inc.; and chairman of SolarCity. In December 2016, he was ranked 21st on the Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People. As of February 2018[update], he has a net worth of $20.1 billion and is listed by Forbes as the 53rd richest person in the world.
Born in Pretoria, Musk taught himself computer programming at the age of 12. He moved to Canada when he was 17 to attend Queen's University. He transferred to the University of Pennsylvania two years later, where he received an economics degree from the Wharton School and a degree in physics from the College of Arts and Sciences. He began a PhD in applied physics and material sciences at Stanford University in 1995 but dropped out after two days to pursue an entrepreneurial career. He subsequently co-founded Zip2, a web software company, which was acquired by Compaq for $340 million in 1999. Musk then founded X.com, an online payment company. It merged with Confinity in 2000 and became PayPal, which was bought by eBay for $1.5 billion in October 2002.
In May 2002 Musk founded SpaceX, an aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company, of which he is CEO and lead designer. He co-founded Tesla, Inc., an electric vehicle and solar panel manufacturer, in 2003, and operates as its CEO and product architect. In 2006 he inspired the creation of SolarCity, a solar energy services company that is now a subsidiary of Tesla, and operates as its chairman. In 2015 Musk co-founded OpenAI, a nonprofit research company that aims to promote friendly artificial intelligence, and serves as its co-chair. He co-founded Neuralink, a neurotechnology company focused on developing brain–computer interfaces, in July 2016 and is its CEO. He founded The Boring Company, an infrastructure and tunnel-construction company, in December 2016.
In addition to his primary business pursuits, Musk has envisioned a high-speed transportation system known as the Hyperloop, and has proposed a vertical take-off and landing supersonic jet electric aircraft with electric fan propulsion, known as the Musk electric jet. Musk has stated that the goals of SpaceX, Tesla, and SolarCity revolve around his vision to change the world and humanity. His goals include reducing global warming through sustainable energy production and consumption, and reducing the "risk of human extinction" by establishing a human colony on Mars.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Political views
- 4 Opinions
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Patents
- 7 Awards and recognition
- 8 In popular media
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Musk was born on June 28, 1971, in Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa, the son of Maye Musk (née Haldeman), a model and dietician from Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, and Errol Musk, a South African electromechanical engineer, pilot, and sailor. He has a younger brother, Kimbal (born 1972), and a younger sister, Tosca (born 1974). His paternal grandmother was British, and he also has Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry. His maternal grandfather was American, from Minnesota. After his parents divorced in 1980, Musk lived mostly with his father in the suburbs of Pretoria, which Musk chose two years after his parents split up, but now says was "not a good idea". As an adult, Musk has severed relations with his father. He has a half sister.
During his childhood he was an avid reader. At age 10, he developed an interest in computing with the Commodore VIC-20. He taught himself computer programming at the age of 12, sold the code of a BASIC-based video game he created called Blastar, to a magazine called PC and Office Technology, for approximately $500. A web version of the game is available online. His childhood reading included Isaac Asimov's Foundation series from which he drew the lesson that "you should try to take the set of actions that are likely to prolong civilization, minimize the probability of a dark age and reduce the length of a dark age if there is one."
Musk attended Waterkloof House Preparatory School, and Bryanston High School before graduating from Pretoria Boys High School. He moved to Canada in June 1989, just before his 18th birthday, after obtaining Canadian citizenship through his Canadian-born mother.
At the age of 17, Musk was accepted into Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, for undergraduate study. In 1992, after spending two years at Queen's University, Musk transferred to the University of Pennsylvania, where in May 1997 he received a Bachelor of Science degree in physics from its College of Arts and Sciences, and a Bachelor of Science degree in economics from its Wharton School of Business. Musk extended his studies for one year to finish the second bachelor's degree. While at the University of Pennsylvania, Musk and fellow Penn student Adeo Ressi rented a 10-bedroom fraternity house, using it as an unofficial nightclub.
In 1995, at age 24, Musk moved to California to begin a PhD in applied physics and materials science at Stanford University, but left the program after two days to pursue his entrepreneurial aspirations in the areas of the internet, renewable energy and outer space. In 2002, he became a U.S. citizen.
In 1995, Musk and his brother, Kimbal, started Zip2, a web software company, with money raised from a small group of angel investors. The company developed and marketed an Internet "city guide" for the newspaper publishing industry. Musk obtained contracts with The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune and persuaded the board of directors to abandon plans for a merger with CitySearch. While at Zip2, Musk wanted to become CEO; however, none of the board members would allow it. Compaq acquired Zip2 for US$307 million in cash and US$34 million in stock options in February 1999. Musk received US$22 million for his 7 percent share from the sale.
X.com and PayPal
In March 1999, Musk co-founded X.com, an online financial services and e-mail payment company, with US$10 million from the sale of Zip2. One year later, the company merged with Confinity, which had a money-transfer service called PayPal. The merged company focused on the PayPal service and was renamed PayPal in 2001. PayPal's early growth was driven mainly by a viral marketing campaign where new customers were recruited when they received money through the service. Musk was ousted in October 2000 from his role as CEO (although he remained on the board) due to disagreements with other company leadership, notably over his desire to move PayPal's Unix-based infrastructure to Microsoft Windows. In October 2002, PayPal was acquired by eBay for US$1.5 billion in stock, of which Musk received US$165 million. Before its sale, Musk, who was the company's largest shareholder, owned 11.7% of PayPal's shares.
In July 2017, Musk purchased the domain x.com from PayPal for an undisclosed amount stating that it has "great sentimental value" to him.
|Wikinews has related news: SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket blasts Elon Musk's personal Tesla into solar orbit|
In 2001, Musk conceptualized "Mars Oasis"; a project to land a miniature experimental greenhouse on Mars, containing food crops growing on Martian regolith, in an attempt to regain public interest in space exploration. In October 2001, Musk travelled to Moscow with Jim Cantrell (an aerospace supplies fixer), and Adeo Ressi (his best friend from college), to buy refurbished Dnepr Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) that could send the envisioned payloads into space. The group met with companies such as NPO Lavochkin and Kosmotras; however, according to Cantrell, Musk was seen as a novice and was consequently spat on by one of the Russian chief designers, and the group returned to the United States empty-handed. In February 2002, the group returned to Russia to look for three ICBMs, bringing along Mike Griffin. Griffin had worked for the CIA's venture capital arm, In-Q-Tel, as well as NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and was just leaving Orbital Sciences, a maker of satellites and spacecraft. The group met again with Kosmotras, and were offered one rocket for US$8 million; however, this was seen by Musk as too expensive; Musk consequently stormed out of the meeting. On the flight back from Moscow, Musk realized that he could start a company that could build the affordable rockets he needed. According to early Tesla and SpaceX investor Steve Jurvetson, Musk calculated that the raw materials for building a rocket actually were only 3 percent of the sales price of a rocket at the time. It was concluded that theoretically, by applying vertical integration and the modular approach from software engineering, SpaceX could cut launch price by a factor of ten and still enjoy a 70-percent gross margin. Ultimately, Musk ended up founding SpaceX with the long-term goal of creating a "true spacefaring civilization".
With US$100 million of his early fortune, Musk founded Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, in May 2002. Musk is chief executive officer (CEO) and chief technology officer (CTO) of the Hawthorne, California-based company. SpaceX develops and manufactures space launch vehicles with a focus on advancing the state of rocket technology. The company's first two launch vehicles are the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 rockets (a nod to Star Wars' Millennium Falcon), and its first spacecraft is the Dragon (a nod to Puff the Magic Dragon). In seven years, SpaceX designed the family of Falcon launch vehicles and the Dragon multipurpose spacecraft. In September 2008, SpaceX's Falcon 1 rocket became the first privately funded liquid-fueled vehicle to put a satellite into Earth orbit. On May 25, 2012, the SpaceX Dragon vehicle berthed with the ISS, making history as the first commercial company to launch and berth a vehicle to the International Space Station.
In 2006, SpaceX was awarded a contract from NASA to continue the development and test of the SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle and Dragon spacecraft in order to transport cargo to the International Space Station,[not in citation given] followed by a US$1.6 billion NASA Commercial Resupply Services program contract on December 23, 2008, for 12 flights of its Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft to the Space Station, replacing the US Space Shuttle after it retired in 2011. Astronaut transport to the ISS is currently handled solely by the Soyuz, but SpaceX is one of two companies awarded a contract by NASA as part of the Commercial Crew Development program, which is intended to develop a US astronaut transport capability by 2018. On December 22, 2015, SpaceX successfully landed the first stage of its Falcon rocket back at the launch pad. This was the first time in history such a feat had been achieved by an orbital rocket and is a significant step towards rocket reusability lowering the costs of access to space. This first stage recovery was replicated several times in 2016 by landing on an autonomous spaceport drone ship, an ocean-based recovery platform, and by the end of 2017, SpaceX had landed and recovered the first stage on 16 missions in a row where a landing and recovery were attempted, including all 14 attempts in 2017. 20 out of 42 first stage Falcon 9 boosters have been recovered overall since the Falcon 9 maiden flight in 2010. In the most recent full year—2017—SpaceX launched 18 successful Falcon 9 flights, more than doubling their highest previous year of 8.
SpaceX is both the largest private producer of rocket engines in the world, and holder of the record for highest thrust-to-weight ratio for a rocket engine (the Merlin 1D). SpaceX has produced more than 100 operational Merlin 1D engines. Each Merlin 1D engine can vertically lift the weight of 40 average family cars. In combination, the 9 Merlin engines in the Falcon 9 first stage produce anywhere from 5.8 to 6.7 MN (1.3 to 1.5 million pounds) of thrust, depending on altitude.
Musk was influenced by Isaac Asimov's Foundation series and views space exploration as an important step in preserving and expanding the consciousness of human life. Musk said that multiplanetary life may serve as a hedge against threats to the survival of the human species.
An asteroid or a super volcano could destroy us, and we face risks the dinosaurs never saw: an engineered virus, inadvertent creation of a micro black hole, catastrophic global warming or some as-yet-unknown technology could spell the end of us. Humankind evolved over millions of years, but in the last sixty years atomic weaponry created the potential to extinguish ourselves. Sooner or later, we must expand life beyond this green and blue ball—or go extinct.
Musk's goal is to reduce the cost of human spaceflight by a factor of 10. In a 2011 interview, he said he hopes to send humans to Mars' surface within 10–20 years. In Ashlee Vance's biography, Musk stated that he wants to establish a Mars colony by 2040, with a population of 80,000. Musk stated that, since Mars' atmosphere lacks oxygen, all transportation would have to be electric (electric cars, electric trains, Hyperloop, electric aircraft). Musk stated in June 2016 that the first unmanned flight of the larger Mars Colonial Transporter (MCT) spacecraft is aimed for departure to the red planet in 2022, to be followed by the first manned MCT Mars flight departing in 2024. In September 2016, Musk revealed details of his architecture to explore and colonize Mars. By 2016, Musk's private trust holds 54% of SpaceX stock, equivalent to 78% of voting shares.
In late 2017, SpaceX unveiled the design for its next-generation launch vehicle and spacecraft system—BFR—that would support all SpaceX launch service provider capabilities with a single set of very large vehicles: Earth-orbit, Lunar-orbit, interplanetary missions, and even intercontinental passenger transport on Earth, and totally replace the Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy and Dragon vehicles in the 2020s. The BFR will have a 9-meter (30 ft) core diameter. Significant development on the vehicles began in 2017, while the new rocket engine development began in 2012.
Both men played active roles in the company's early development prior to Elon Musk's involvement. Musk led the Series A round of investment in February 2004, joining Tesla's board of directors as its chairman. Musk took an active role within the company and oversaw Roadster product design at a detailed level, but was not deeply involved in day-to-day business operations.
Following the financial crisis in 2008, Musk assumed leadership of the company as CEO and product architect, positions he still holds today. Tesla Motors first built an electric sports car, the Tesla Roadster in 2008, with sales of about 2,500 vehicles to 31 countries. Tesla began delivery of its four-door Model S sedan on June 22, 2012. It unveiled its third product, the Model X, aimed at the SUV/minivan market, on February 9, 2012; however, the Model X launch was delayed until September 2015. In addition to its own cars, Tesla sells electric powertrain systems to Daimler for the Smart EV, Mercedes B-Class Electric Drive and Mercedes A Class, and to Toyota for the RAV4 EV. Musk was able to bring in both companies as long-term investors in Tesla.
Musk has favored building a sub-US$30,000 compact Tesla model and building and selling electric vehicle powertrain components so that other automakers can produce electric vehicles at affordable prices without having to develop the products in-house; this led to the Model 3 that is planned to have a base price of US$35,000. Several mainstream publications have compared him with Henry Ford for his work on advanced vehicle powertrains.
In a May 2013 interview with All Things Digital, Musk said that to overcome the range limitations of electric cars, Tesla is "dramatically accelerating" its network of supercharger stations, tripling the number on the East and West coasts of the U.S. that June, with plans for more expansion across North America, including Canada, throughout the year. As of January 29, 2016, Musk owns about 28.9 million Tesla shares, which equates to about 22% of the company.
In 2014, Musk announced that Tesla would allow its technology patents to be used by anyone in good faith in a bid to entice automobile manufacturers to speed up development of electric cars. "The unfortunate reality is electric car programs (or programs for any vehicle that doesn't burn hydrocarbons) at the major manufacturers are small to non-existent, constituting an average of far less than 1% of their total vehicle sales", Musk said.
Musk provided the initial concept and financial capital for SolarCity, which was then co-founded in 2006 by his cousins Lyndon and Peter Rive. By 2013, SolarCity was the second largest provider of solar power systems in the United States. SolarCity was acquired by Tesla, Inc. in 2016 and is currently a wholly owned subsidiary of Tesla.
The underlying motivation for funding both SolarCity and Tesla was to help combat global warming. In 2012, Musk announced that SolarCity and Tesla are collaborating to use electric vehicle batteries to smooth the impact of rooftop solar on the power grid, with the program going live in 2013.
On June 17, 2014, Musk committed to building a SolarCity advanced production facility in Buffalo, New York, that would triple the size of the largest solar plant in the United States. Musk stated the plant will be "one of the single largest solar panel production plants in the world", and it will be followed by one or more even bigger facilities in subsequent years.[needs update]
On August 12, 2013, Musk unveiled a concept for a high-speed transportation system incorporating reduced-pressure tubes in which pressurized capsules ride on an air cushion driven by linear induction motors and air compressors. The mechanism for releasing the concept was an alpha-design document that, in addition to scoping out the technology, outlined a notional route where such a transport system might be built: between the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area.
After earlier envisioning Hyperloop, Musk assigned a dozen engineers from Tesla and SpaceX who worked for nine months, establishing the conceptual foundations and creating the designs for the transportation system. An early design for the system was then published in a whitepaper posted to the Tesla and SpaceX blogs. Musk's proposal, if technologically feasible at the costs he has cited, would make Hyperloop travel cheaper than any other mode of transport for such long distances. The alpha design was proposed to use a partial vacuum to reduce aerodynamic drag, which it is theorized would allow for high-speed travel with relatively low power, with certain other features like air-bearing skis and an inlet compressor to reduce freestream flow. The document of alpha design estimated the total cost of an LA-to-SF Hyperloop system at US$6 billion, but this amount is speculative.
In June 2015, Musk announced a design competition for students and others to build Hyperloop pods to operate on a SpaceX-sponsored mile-long track in a 2015–2017 Hyperloop pod competition. The track was used in January 2017, and Musk also started building a tunnel.
Hyperloop One, a company unaffiliated with Musk, had announced that it had done its first successful test run on its DevLoop track in Nevada on July 13, 2017. It was on May 12, 2017 at 12:02 a.m. and had lasted 5.3 seconds, reaching a top speed of 70 mph.
On July 20, 2017, Elon Musk announced that he had gotten "verbal government approval" to build a hyperloop from New York City to Washington D.C, stopping in both Philadelphia and Baltimore. However, the New York City Transit Authority, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Maryland Transit Administration, United States Department of Homeland Security, as well as the mayors of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington D.C. stated that they are unaware of any such agreement.
In December 2015, Musk announced the creation of OpenAI, a not-for-profit artificial intelligence (AI) research company. OpenAI aims to develop artificial general intelligence in a way that is safe and beneficial to humanity.
By making AI available to everyone, OpenAI wants to "counteract large corporations who may gain too much power by owning super-intelligence systems devoted to profits, as well as governments which may use AI to gain power and even oppress their citizenry". Musk has stated he wants to counteract the concentration of power.
In 2016, Musk co-founded Neuralink, a neurotechnology startup company, to integrate the human brain with artificial intelligence. The company, which is still in the earliest stages of existence, is centered on creating devices that can be implanted in the human brain, with the eventual purpose of helping human beings merge with software and keep pace with advancements in artificial intelligence. These enhancements could improve memory or allow for more direct interfacing with computing devices. Musk sees Neuralink and OpenAI as related: "OpenAI is a nonprofit dedicated to minimizing the dangers of artificial intelligence, while Neuralink is working on ways to implant technology into our brains to create mind-computer interfaces. ... Neuralink allows our brains to keep up in the intelligence race. The machines can't outsmart us if we have everything the machines have plus everything we have. At least, that is if you assume that what we have is actually an advantage."
The Boring Company
On December 17, 2016, while stuck in traffic, Musk tweeted "Am going to build a tunnel boring machine and just start digging..." The company was named 'The Boring Company'. On January 21, 2017, Musk tweeted "Exciting progress on the tunnel front. Plan to start digging in a month or so." The first tunnel will start on the SpaceX campus, and will probably go to a nearby parking garage. As of January 26, 2017, discussions with regulatory bodies have begun, but no requests for permits to dig in the Los Angeles area had been filed with the California Department of Transportation by late January 2017.[needs update]
In February 2017, the company began digging a 30-foot-wide, 50-foot-long, and 15-foot-deep "test trench" on the premises of Space X's offices in Los Angeles, since the construction requires no permits. Musk has said that a 10-fold decrease in tunnel boring cost per mile is necessary for economic feasibility of the proposed tunnel network.[needs update]
Politically, Musk has described himself as "half Democrat, half Republican". In his own words: "I'm somewhere in the middle, socially liberal and fiscally conservative." In December 2016, Musk became a member of two of then President-elect Donald Trump's presidential advisory committees (the Strategic and Policy Forum and Manufacturing Jobs Initiative) but resigned from both in June 2017, in protest at Trump's decision to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement on climate change.
Musk has described himself as "nauseatingly pro-American". According to Musk, the United States is "[inarguably] the greatest country that has ever existed on Earth", describing it as "the greatest force for good of any country that's ever been." Musk believes outright that there "would not be democracy in the world if not for the United States", arguing there were "three separate occasions in the 20th-century where democracy would have fallen with World War I, World War II and the Cold War, if not for the United States." Musk also stated that he thinks "it would be a mistake to say the United States is perfect, it certainly is not. There have been many foolish things the United States has done and bad things the United States has done."
Prior to the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States, Musk criticized candidate Trump by saying: "I feel a bit stronger that he is probably not the right guy. He doesn't seem to have the sort of character that reflects well on the United States." Following Donald Trump's inauguration, Musk expressed approval of Trump's choice of Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State and accepted an invitation to appear on a panel advising President Trump. Regarding his cooperation with Trump, Musk has subsequently commented: "The more voices of reason that the President hears, the better."
In an interview with the Washington Post, Musk stated he was a "significant (though not top-tier) donor to Democrats", but that he also gives heavily to Republicans. Musk further stated, "in order to have your voice be heard in Washington, you have to make some little contribution."
A recent report from the Sunlight Foundation (a nonpartisan group that tracks government spending), found that "SpaceX has spent over US$4 million on lobbying Congress since it was established in 2002 and doled out more than US$800,000 in political contributions" to Democrats and Republicans. The same report noted that "SpaceX's campaign to win political support has been systematic and sophisticated", and that "unlike most tech-startups, SpaceX has maintained a significant lobbying presence in Washington almost since day 1." The report further noted that "Musk himself has donated roughly US$725,000 to various campaigns since 2002. In 2004, he contributed US$2,000 to President George W. Bush's reelection campaign, maxing out (over US$100,000) to Obama's reelection campaign and donated US$5,000 to Republican Sen. Marco Rubio, who represents Florida, a state critical to the space industry. (...) All told, Musk and SpaceX gave out roughly US$250,000 in the 2012 election cycle." Additionally, SpaceX hired former Republican Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott to represent the company, via the Washington-based lobbying group Patton Boggs LLP. Alongside Patton Boggs LLP, SpaceX uses several other outside lobbying firms, who work alongside SpaceX's own lobbyists.
Musk had been a supporter of the U.S. political action committee (PAC) FWD.us, which was started by fellow high-profile entrepreneur Mark Zuckerberg and advocates for immigration reform. However, in May 2013, Musk publicly withdrew his support in protest of advertisements the PAC was running that supported causes like the Keystone Pipeline. Musk and other members, including David O. Sacks, pulled out, criticizing the strategy as "cynical". Musk further stated, "we shouldn't give in to the politics. If we give in to that, we'll get the political system we deserve."
In December 2013, Sean Becker of the media/political website Mic called Musk a "complete hypocrite", stating that "[for] the 2014 election cycle, Musk has contributed to the Longhorn PAC and the National Republican Congressional Committee – both of which have funded the campaigns of anti-science, anti-environment candidates such as Rep. Michelle Bachman (R-Minn.)." Musk has directly contributed to Republican Sen. Marco Rubio, who has been accused of holding similar positions regarding climate change.
Musk has stated that he does not believe the U.S. government should provide subsidies to companies but should instead use a carbon tax to price in the negative externality of air pollution and discourage "bad behavior". Musk argues that the free market would achieve the "best solution", and that producing environmentally unfriendly vehicles should come with its own consequences.
Musk's statements have been widely criticized, with Stanford University Professor Fred Turner noting that "if you're an entrepreneur like Elon Musk, you will take the money where you can get it, but at the same time believe as a matter of faith that it's entrepreneurship and technology that are the sources of social change, not the state. It is not quite self-delusion, but there is a habit of thinking of oneself as a free-standing, independent agent, and of not acknowledging the subsidies that one received. And this goes on all the time in Silicon Valley." Author Michael Shellenberger argued that "in the case of Musk, it is hard not to read that as a kind of defensiveness. And I think there is a business reason for it. They are dealing with a lot of investors for whom subsidies are not the basis for a long-term viable business, and they often want to exaggerate the speed with which they are going to be able to become independent." Shellenberger continues, "we would all be better off if these entrepreneurs were a bit more grateful, a bit more humble." While journalist and author Jim Motavalli, who interviewed Musk for High Voltage, his 2011 book about the electric vehicle industry, speculated that "Elon is now looking at it from the point of view of a winner, and he doesn't want to see other people win because they get government money – I do think there is a tendency of people, once they have succeeded, to want to pull the ladder up after them."
In 2015, Musk's statements were subject to further scrutiny when an LA Times article claimed that SpaceX, Tesla, SolarCity and buyers of their products had or were projected to receive together an estimated US$4.9 billion in government subsidies over twenty years. One example given is New York state, which is spending $750 million to build a solar panel factory in Buffalo which will be leased to SolarCity for $1 a year. The deal also includes no property taxes for a decade, an estimated $260 million valuation. Musk employs a former U.S. State Department official as the chief negotiator for Tesla.
Destiny and religion
When asked whether he believed "there was some kind of destiny involved" in humanity's transition to a multi-planetary species, rather than "just physics", Musk responded:
Well, I do. Do I think that there's some sort of master intelligence architecting all of this stuff? I think probably not because then you have to say: "Where does the master intelligence come from?" So it sort of begs the question. So I think really you can explain this with the fundamental laws of physics. You know it's complex phenomenon from simple elements.
Musk has stated that he does not pray, or worship any being, although previously admitted to praying before an important Falcon 1 launch, asking "any entities that [were] listening" to "bless [the] launch". When asked whether he believed "religion and science could co-exist", Musk replied "probably not".
Although Musk believes "there is a good chance that there is simple life on other planets", he "questions whether there is other intelligent life in the known universe". Musk later clarified his "hope that there is other intelligent life in the known universe", and stated that it is "probably more likely than not, but that's a complete guess."
The absence of any noticeable life may be an argument in favour of us being in a simulation.... Like when you're playing an adventure game, and you can see the stars in the background, but you can't ever get there. If it's not a simulation, then maybe we're in a lab and there's some advanced alien civilization that's just watching how we develop, out of curiosity, like mould in a petri dish.... If you look at our current technology level, something strange has to happen to civilizations, and I mean strange in a bad way. ... And it could be that there are a whole lot of dead, one-planet civilizations.
Musk has frequently spoken about the potential dangers of artificial intelligence, declaring it "the most serious threat to the survival of the human race". During an interview at the MIT AeroAstro Centennial Symposium, Musk described AI as "[humanity's] biggest existential threat", further stating, "I'm increasingly inclined to think that there should be some regulatory oversight, maybe at the national and international level, just to make sure that we don't do something very foolish." Musk described the creation of artificial intelligence as "summoning the demon".
Despite this, Musk has previously invested in DeepMind, an AI firm, and Vicarious, a company working to improve machine intelligence. In January 2015, he donated $10 million to the Future of Life Institute, an organization focused on challenges posed by advanced technologies. He is the co-chairman of OpenAI, a nonprofit artificial intelligence research company.
Musk has said that his investments are, "not from the standpoint of actually trying to make any investment return... I like to just keep an eye on what's going on with artificial intelligence". Musk continued, "There have been movies about this, you know, like Terminator – there are some scary outcomes. And we should try to make sure the outcomes are good, not bad."
In June 2016, he was asked whether he thinks humans live in a computer simulation, to which he answered "probably". Elaborated as follows:
The strongest argument for us probably being in a simulation I think is the following: 40 years ago we had Pong – two rectangles and a dot. That's where we were. Now 40 years later we have photorealistic, 3D simulations with millions of people playing simultaneously and it's getting better every year. And soon we'll have virtual reality, we'll have augmented reality. If you assume any rate of improvement at all, then the games will become indistinguishable from reality, just indistinguishable.
Elon Musk's dark warnings over Artificial Intelligence has brought him some controversy. He and Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg have clashed with the latter terming his warnings "irresponsible". Musk responded to Mark's censure by saying that he had discussed AI with Zuckerberg and found him to have only a "limited understanding" of the subject.
Numerous AI experts have since criticised Musk's statements, describing them as fear mongering. Carlos Moedas, European Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, said that "media are too full of alarmist, hysterical doomsday scenarios", as the EU is looking at ways of stopping the flow of false information regarding AI. Rodney Brooks, founding director of MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab, told TechCrunch that Elon Musk and those who share his views "share a common thread, in that: they don’t work in AI themselves." François Chollet and David Ha, deep learning researchers at Google, said that it is unclear if AI will create any new threats and that they disagree with Musk's statements. Pedro Domingos, professor of Computer Science at the University of Washington, tweeted "One word: sigh" as a response to Musk's comments about AI.
At a Tesla event on the sidelines of the Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems in December 2017, Musk stated that:
I think public transport is painful. It sucks. Why do you want to get on something with a lot of other people, that doesn’t leave where you want it to leave, doesn’t start where you want it to start, doesn’t end where you want it to end? And it doesn’t go all the time. [...] It’s a pain in the ass. That’s why everyone doesn’t like it. And there’s like a bunch of random strangers, one of who might be a serial killer, OK, great.
His comment sparked widespread criticism from both the public and transit experts. Urban planning expert Brent Toderian started the hashtag #GreatThingsThatHappenedonTransit which was widely adopted by Twitter users in order to dispel Musk's notion that everybody hated public transport. Yonah Freemark, an urbanist and journalist specialising in planning and transportation, summarised Musk's views on public transport as "It's terrible. You might be killed. Japanese trains are awful. Individualized transport for everyone! Congestion? Induced demand? Climate change impacts? Unwalkable streets? Who cares!"
Jarrett Walker, a known public transport expert and consultant from Portland, said that "Musk's hatred of sharing space with strangers is a luxury (or pathology) that only the rich can afford," referring to the theory that planning a city around the preferences of a minority yields an outcome that usually does not work for the majority.  Musk responded with "You're an idiot," later saying "Sorry [...] Meant to say 'sanctimonious idiot.'" The exchange received a significant amount of media attention and prompted Nobel laureate Paul Krugman to comment on the controversy, saying that apparently, "You're an idiot" is Musk's idea of a cogent argument.
The 1994 model Dassault Falcon 900 aircraft used in the 2005 film Thank You for Smoking is registered to Musk (N900SX), and Musk had a cameo as the pilot of his plane, opening the door for Robert Duvall and escorting Aaron Eckhart aboard. Musk owns Wet Nellie, the Lotus Esprit from the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me. He plans to convert it into the functional car-submarine from the film.
Musk stated that he wants "to die on Mars, just not on impact".
Musk is chairman of the Musk Foundation, which focuses its philanthropic efforts on providing solar-power energy systems in disaster areas. In 2010, the Musk Foundation collaborated with SolarCity to donate a 25-kW solar power system to the South Bay Community Alliance's hurricane response center in Coden, Alabama. In July 2011, the Musk Foundation donated US$250,000 towards a solar power project in Sōma, Japan, a city that had been recently devastated by tsunami.
In July 2014, Musk was asked by cartoonist Matthew Inman and William Terbo, the grandnephew of Nikola Tesla, to donate US$8 million toward the construction of the Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe. Ultimately, Musk agreed to donate US$1 million toward the project and additionally pledged to build a Tesla Supercharger in the museum car park.
Their first son, Nevada Alexander Musk, died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) at the age of 10 weeks. They later had five sons through in vitro fertilization – twins in 2004, followed by triplets in 2006. They share custody of all five sons.
In 2008, Musk began dating English actress Talulah Riley, and in 2010, the couple married. In January 2012, Musk announced that he had ended his four-year relationship with Riley, tweeting to Riley, "It was an amazing four years. I will love you forever. You will make someone very happy one day." In July 2013, Musk and Riley remarried. In December 2014, Musk filed for a second divorce from Riley; however, the action was withdrawn. The media announced in March 2016 that divorce proceedings were again under way, this time with Riley filing for divorce from Musk. The divorce was finalized in late 2016.
In an apparent admission of mixing zolpidem and alcohol, Musk tweeted in June 2017 "A little red wine, vintage record, some Ambien ... and magic!". Musk gained media attention for mentioning the dangerous drug combination publicly on his social media.
|Title||Application number||Grant number||Application date||Grant date||Original assignee|
|Funnel shaped charge inlet||13/549185||8579635||2012-07-13||2013-11-12||Tesla Motors, Inc.|
|Vehicle charge inlet||29/427056||D724031||2012-07-13||2015-03-10||Tesla Motors, Inc.|
|Vehicle||29/412833||D683268||2012-02-08||2013-05-28||Tesla Motors, Inc.|
|Vehicle door||29/412841||D678154||2012-02-08||2013-03-19||Tesla Motors, Inc.|
Awards and recognition
- In 2006, Musk served as a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board.
- R&D Magazine Innovator of the Year for 2007 for SpaceX, Tesla, and SolarCity.
- Inc Magazine Entrepreneur of the Year award for 2007 for his work on Tesla and SpaceX.
- 2007 Index Design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster. Global Green 2006 product design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster, presented by Mikhail Gorbachev.
- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics George Low award for the most outstanding contribution in the field of space transportation in 2007/2008. Musk was recognized for his design of the Falcon 1, the first privately developed liquid-fuel rocket to reach orbit.
- National Wildlife Federation 2008 National Conservation Achievement award for Tesla and SolarCity. Other 2008 recipients include journalist Thomas Friedman, U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT), and Florida Governor Charlie Crist.
- The Aviation Week 2008 Laureate for the most significant achievement worldwide in the space industry.
- National Space Society's Von Braun Trophy in 2008/2009, given for leadership of the most significant achievement in space. Prior recipients include Burt Rutan and Steve Squyres.
- Automotive Executive of the Year (worldwide) in 2010 for demonstrating technology leadership and innovation via Tesla. Prior awardees include Bill Ford Jr, Bob Lutz, Dieter Zetsche and Lee Iacocca. Musk is the youngest ever recipient of this award.
- Listed as one of Time's 100 people who most affected the world in 2010.
- The world governing body for aerospace records, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, presented Musk in 2010 with the highest award in air and space, the FAI Gold Space Medal, for designing the first privately developed rocket to reach orbit. Prior recipients include Neil Armstrong, Burt Rutan of Scaled Composites and John Glenn.
- Named as one of the 75 most influential people of the 21st century by Esquire magazine.
- Recognized as a Living Legend of Aviation in 2010 by the Kitty Hawk Foundation for creating the successor to the Space Shuttle (Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft). Other recipients include Buzz Aldrin and Richard Branson.
- In 2010, Musk was elected to the board of trustees of the California Institute of Technology, however no longer holds the position.
- In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, he was ranked as the No. 10 (tied with rocketry pioneer and scientist Wernher von Braun) most popular space hero.
- In February 2011, Forbes listed Musk as one of "America's 20 Most Powerful CEOs 40 And Under".
- In June 2011, Musk was awarded the US$250,000 Heinlein Prize for Advances in Space Commercialization
- In 2011, Musk was honored as a Legendary Leader at the Churchill Club Awards.
- In 2012, Musk was awarded the Royal Aeronautical Society's highest award: a Gold Medal.
- Musk was the 2012 recipient of Smithsonian magazine's American Ingenuity Award in the Technology category.
- In 2013, Musk was named the Fortune Businessperson of the year for SpaceX, SolarCity, and Tesla.
- In 2015, he was awarded IEEE Honorary Membership.
- As of 2015, Musk serves on the board of advisors of Social Concepts, Inc.
- In 2016, The Drive, a division of Time, named Musk the most influential person in the car business and as the second most influential person in the automotive tech sector.
- In June 2016, Business Insider named Musk one of the "Top 10 Business Visionaries Creating Value for the World" along with Mark Zuckerberg and Sal Khan.
- In December 2016, Musk was ranked 21st on Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People.
- In March 2017, Musk was listed by UK-based company Richtopia at number 3 in the list of 200 Most Influential Philanthropists and Social Entrepreneurs.
- Honorary doctorate in Design from the Art Center College of Design
- Honorary doctorate (DUniv) in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Surrey
- Honorary doctorate of Engineering and Technology from Yale University
- Honorary Doctorate from AGH Cracow.
In popular media
Musk was featured in the 2015 environmental documentary Racing Extinction, in which a custom Tesla Model S was designed to help project images of critically endangered species onto public buildings, including the Empire State Building and the Vatican.
Also in 2016, Musk was referenced by Dr. Martin Stein on The CW time-travel TV show DC's Legends of Tomorrow. During time travel to the past, Stein meets his younger self and introduced himself as Elon Musk, to disguise his own identity.
In October 2017, Musk was prematurely immortalized as a historic pioneer on the CBS All Access series Star Trek Discovery. Set in the year 2256, Captain Gabriel Lorca attempts to motivate a scientist on his ship by asking him "How do you want to be remembered in history? Alongside the Wright Brothers, Elon Musk, Zefram Cochrane? Or as a failed fungus expert. A selfish little man who put the survival of his own ego before the lives of others?" According to an article in techcrunch.com published the day after the episode aired, this mention is "also interesting because of its notable omission of Amazon and Blue Origin founder Jeff Bezos: This other space entrepreneur is such a big fan of Star Trek that he pitched and succeeded in landing a cameo in Star Trek Beyond as an alien being, but he doesn’t rate a mention from Lorca among the spaceflight pantheon."
In November 2017, Musk appeared as himself in the Season 1, Episode 6, episode of The Big Bang Theory spin-off prequel series Young Sheldon. The successful first landing of a SpaceX Falcon 9 first stage on April 8, 2016, is shown being covered by CNN. This is followed by a scene where Musk is shown alone in his office reading the notebook that young Sheldon mailed NASA in 1989 (a scene shown earlier in the episode) containing calculations detailing how this feat could be accomplished.
- "Billionaire Tesla CEO Elon Musk Buys Neighbor's Home in Bel Air For Million". Forbes. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- "Inside Elon Musk's M Bel Air Mansion". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Hull, Dana (April 11, 2014). "Timeline: Elon Musk's accomplishments". Retrieved June 11, 2015 – via Mercury News.
- Zanerhaft, Jaron (2013). "Elon Musk: Patriarchs and Prodigies". CSQ. C-Suite Quarterly. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- "Elon Musk". Forbes. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- "Actor Talulah Riley files to divorce billionaire Elon Musk, again". The Guardian. March 21, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
The pair first married in 2010 and divorced in 2012. They remarried 18 months later.
- "Elon Musk withdraws Talulah Riley divorce papers after being spotted at Allen & Company conference". Mail Online. August 5, 2015.
- Curtis, Sophie (November 10, 2014). "Elon Musk 'to launch fleet of internet satellites'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
Elon Musk, inventor and business magnate
- Vance, Ashlee (September 13, 2012). "Elon Musk, the 21st Century Industrialist". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- "Early Career Engineers, Conferences and Careers". asme.org. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Bellis, Mary. "Biography of Elon Musk". inventors.about.com. About.com. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- "The Top 10 Venture Capitalists on 2014's Midas List". Forbes. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Albergotti, Reed (March 21, 2014). "Zuckerberg, Musk Invest in Artificial Intelligence Company". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Love, Dylan (March 21, 2014). "Elon Musk And Mark Zuckerberg Have Invested Million in a Mysterious Artificial Intelligence Company". Business Insider. Business Insider. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Shanklin, Emily (March 27, 2017). "Elon Musk". SpaceX. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- "The World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. December 2016. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- "The World's Billionaires List". Forbes. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- Martin LaMonica (September 21, 2009). "Tesla Motors founders: Now there are five". CNET.
- "A Brief history of Tesla". Tech Crunch. January 4, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
Tesla was founded not by Elon Musk, but rather by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning in July 2003. The two bootstrapped the fledgling auto company until Elon Musk led the company's million Series A financing round in February 2004, when Musk became the company's Chairman of the Board.
- Hardy, Quentin; Bilton, Nick (March 16, 2014). "Start-Ups Aim to Conquer Space Market". The New York Times. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
Space Exploration Technologies, or Space X, started by the Tesla founder Elon Musk
- "Trust Your Own Focus Group of One". Entrepreneur.com. April 11, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
Elon Musk, founder of PayPal, Tesla and SpaceX
- Jonathan Charlton. "Elon Musk 'Toying' with Designs for Electric Jet". Aviation.com. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Elon Musk on dodging a nervous breakdown (2013). YouTube. March 16, 2015.
- "Youtube Video - Elon Musk: The mind behind Tesla, SpaceX, SolarCity".
- Ross Andersen (September 30, 2014). "Elon Musk puts his case for a multi-planet civilisation". Aeon. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "Elon Musk (South African entrepreneur)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- His Biography author Ashlee Vance interviewed on the TV show Triangulation on the TWiT.tv network, discussion of his family starts around the 15th minute
- Friend, Tad (2009). "Plugged In". The New Yorker. 85 (23–30): 53. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Masia, Seth (May 2011). "A Family Leads to the Installer Universe". Solar Today. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Elliott, Hannah (March 3, 2012). "At Home With Elon Musk: The (Soon-to-Be) Bachelor Billionaire". Forbes. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Hall, Dana (April 11, 2014). "Rocket Man: The otherworldly ambitions of Elon Musk". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
- Hannah Elliott. "At Home With Elon Musk: The (Soon-to-Be) Bachelor Billionaire". Forbes. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- "Tweet". February 5, 2017.
- Strauss, Neil (November 15, 2017). "Elon Musk: The Architect of Tomorrow". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
- "2014: Rocket Man: The otherworldly ambitions of Elon Musk". The Mercury News. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- Vance, Ashlee (2015). Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future. ISBN 978-0062301239.
- Pierre Haski (May 28, 2015). "Elon Musk (Tesla, SpaceX): génie ou prédateur de la Silicon Valley?" (in French). rue89.nouvelobs.com.
- "Play the PC game Elon Musk wrote as a pre-teen".
- Belfiore, Michael (2007). "Chapter 7: Orbit on a Shoestring". Rocketeers. Harper Collins. pp. 166–95. ISBN 978-0-06-114902-3.
- "Blastar for HTML5". blastar-1984.appspot.com. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Jenna Etheridge (July 23, 2017). "Bryanston High School saddened by Elon Musk bullying". news24.com.
- "37 Interesting Facts about Elon Musk, One of the Most Innovative Entrepreneurs of Our Time". BoomsBeat.com. February 14, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2015.[unreliable source?]
- Davis, Johnny (August 4, 2007). "One more giant leap". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Diggelen, Alison van (February 7, 2013). "Iron Man, Growing up in South Africa". Fresh Dialogues. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
I actually filled out the forms for her and got her a Canadian passport, and me too. Within three weeks of getting my Canadian passport, I was in Canada.
- Robin Keats (2013). "Rocket man". Queen's University. Archived from the original on May 4, 2015.
- Inspirations with Elon Musk. OnInnovation. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Junod, Tom (November 15, 2012). "Triumph of His Will". Esquire. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Clark, Steve (September 27, 2014). "SpaceX chief: Commercial launch sites necessary step to Mars". Brownsville Herald. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- Friedman, Josh (April 22, 2003), "Entrepreneur Tries His Midas Touch in Space", Los Angeles Times
- "Elon Musk Biography". Advameg. August 23, 2005.
- Kidder, David; Hoffman, Reid (2013). The Startup Playbook: Secrets of the Fastest Growing Start-Ups from the founding Entrepreneurs. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. pp. 2224–228. ISBN 978-1452105048.
- Junnarkar, Sandeep (February 16, 1999). "Compaq buys Zip2". CNET.
- Jackson, Erik (2004). The PayPal Wars. Los Angeles, CA: World Ahead Publishing. pp. 40, 69, 130, 163.
- Musk, Elon (October 8, 2003). Success Through Viral Marketing: PayPal. Entrepreneurial Thought Leaders Lecture.
- "The PayPal Mafia". Fortune. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- "SEC 10-K" (PDF). eBay. December 31, 2002.
- "SEC 10-K". Paypal. December 31, 2001.
- Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (July 10, 2017). "Thanks PayPal for allowing me to buy back X.com ! No plans right now, but it has great sentimental value to me" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- McKnight, John Carter (September 25, 2001). "Elon Musk, Life to Mars Foundation". Mars Now, a weekly column. Space Frontier Foundation.
- Musk, Elon. "Risky Business". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Vance, Ashlee (May 14, 2015). "Elon Musk's space dream almost killed Tesla". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- "How Steve Jurvetson Saved Elon Musk". Business Insider. September 14, 2012.
- SpaceX and Daring to Think Big – Steve Jurvetson. YouTube. January 28, 2015.
- Elon Musk (September 8, 2006). "SpaceX wins NASA competition to replace Space Shuttle". SpaceX.
- Wayne, Leslie (February 5, 2006). "A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- California Business Search (C2414622 - Space Exploration Technologies Corp)
- Harwood, William (May 31, 2012). "SpaceX Dragon returns to Earth, ends historic trip". CBS News. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- COTS 2006 Demo Competition. NASA (accessed August 26, 2014); and announcement "Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Demonstrations". January 18, 2006 (accessed August 26, 2014)
- "NASA Awards Space Station Commercial Resupply Services Contracts". nasa.gov. NASA. December 23, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- "Boeing And SpaceX Win Billion in NASA Contracts". NPR.org. National Public Radio. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- "SpaceX rocket in historic upright landing". BBC News. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- O'Kane, Sean (May 27, 2016). "SpaceX successfully lands a Falcon 9 rocket at sea for the third time". The Verge. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- Henry, Caleb (2017-12-22). "SpaceX concludes 2017 with fourth Iridium Next launch". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2017-12-25.
- Mike Wall (2017-12-22). "Used SpaceX Rocket Launches 10 Communications Satellites Once Again". Space.com. Retrieved 2017-12-25.
- "Is SpaceX Changing the Rocket Equation?". airspacemag.com. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Clark, Stephen. "100th Merlin 1D engine flies on Falcon 9 rocket – Spaceflight Now". Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- "SpaceX completes 100th Merlin 1D Engine". SpaceX. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Carroll, Roy (July 17, 2013). "Elon Musk's mission to Mars". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "75 most influential people: Elon Musk". Esquire. October 1, 2008.
- "Space Exploration Technologies Corporation Press Release". SpaceX. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Elon Musk: I'll Put a Man on Mars in 10 Years". Market Watch. New York. April 22, 2011. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- Elon Musk speaks at the Hyperloop Pod Award Ceremony (2016.1.30). January 31, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016 – via YouTube.
- Davenport, Christian (June 13, 2016). "Elon Musk provides new details on his 'mind blowing' mission to Mars". Washington Post. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- Chang, Kenneth (September 27, 2016). "Elon Musk's Plan: Get Humans to Mars, and Beyond". New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (November 16, 2016). "Elon Musk's stake in SpaceX is actually worth more than his Tesla shares". Electrek. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- Elon Musk (29 September 2017). Becoming a Multiplanet Species (video). 68th annual meeting of the International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, Australia: SpaceX. Retrieved 2017-12-31 – via YouTube.
- Dent, Steve (29 September 2017). "Elon Musk's Mars dream hinges on a giant new rocket". Engadget. Retrieved 2018-01-01.
- Burns, Matt (October 8, 2014). "A Brief History of Tesla". TechCrunch. TechCrunch.com. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- Nordqvist, Joseph (February 12, 2014). "Tesla Motors Inc.—Company Information". Market Business News. Archived from the original on February 12, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Musk, Elon (August 2, 2006). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me) No. 124". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on August 2, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010. [self-published source]
- Musk, Elon. "CEO Elon Musk". Tesla Motors. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Morrison, Chris (October 15, 2008). "Musk steps in as CEO". The New York Times.
- Graham Ruddick. "Tesla's Model X electric car spreads falcon wings at US launch". the Guardian. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Tesla Model X: Not a model launch". Fortune. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Model X". Tesla Motors. October 29, 2012.
- Joann Muller (June 1, 2013). "What Do Toyota And Mercedes See in Tesla? A Bit of Themselves". Forbes.com.
- Musk, Elon (August 2, 2006). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me)". Tesla Motors.
- Hamilton, Tyler (October 12, 2009). "Tesla CEO following in Henry Ford's tracks". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on October 17, 2009.
- Del Ray, Jason (May 29, 2013), Musk: You'll Be Able to Drive Your Tesla Cross-Country by Year's End With Supercharger Expansion, All Things D
- Claudia Assis; Jeremy C. Owens. "Elon Musk exercises Tesla options, pays million tax bill with own cash". MarketWatch. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- Chris Ziegler (January 29, 2016). "Elon Musk bought million more worth of Tesla this week". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "Tesla's Elon Musk worked for free last year". Fortune. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Durisin, Megan (August 10, 2013). "Musk get US$4.3 million of stock options for Model X work". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "All Our Patent Are Belong To You". Tesla Motors. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Dana Hull (February 19, 2016). "Musk Gets Tesla.com Domain Name After Waiting a Decade". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
- "Management Team". SolarCity.
- Kanellos, Michael (February 15, 2008). "Newsmaker: Elon Musk on rockets, sports cars, and solar power". CNET.
- "2013 Top 250 Solar Contractors". Solar Power World. September 13, 2013.
- "Early Christmas Present For Elon Musk As Shareholders Bless Tesla-SolarCity Merger". Forbes. 17 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "Tesla - Current Report". ir.tesla.com.
- The unveiling of the Tesla Motors Electric Car. Autoblog. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
- Diggelen, Alison van. "Tesla and SolarCity Collaborate on Clean Energy Storage". KQED. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Aaron Smith (June 17, 2014). "Elon Musk's sunny plans for Buffalo". CNNMoney.
- "Beyond the hype of Hyperloop: An analysis of Elon Musk's proposed transit system". Gizmag.com. August 22, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- Ashlee Vance. "Revealed: Elon Musk Explains the Hyperloop, the Solar-Powered High-Speed Future of Inter-City Transportation". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "Hyperloop Update: Elon Musk Will Start Developing It Himself". Forbes.com. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
- "Musk announces plans to build Hyperloop demonstrator". gizmag.com. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). "Hyperloop Alpha" (PDF). SpaceX. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). "Hyperloop". Tesla. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- "Hyperloop Designed for Quick, Convenient Commute". ABC News. March 9, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- "Hyperloop". SpaceX. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Mazza, Sandy (January 29, 2017). "Hyperloop competition brings new mass-transit technology to life in Hawthorne". Daily Bulletin.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (July 14, 2017). "Talking to Hyperloop One about its big 'Kitty Hawk' moment – and what comes next". The Verge. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
- "Elon Musk Says He Has 'Verbal' OK To Build N.Y.-D.C. Hyperloop". NPR.org. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- Felton, Ryan (July 20, 2017). "Here's A Running List of Comments From Public Agencies on Elon Musk's 'Verbal Govt Approval' To Build A Hyperloop From NYC To D.C." Jalopnik. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
- Markoff, John (December 11, 2015). "Artificial-Intelligence Research Center Is Founded by Silicon Valley Investors". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- Levy, Steven (December 11, 2015). "How Elon Musk and Y Combinator Plan to Stop Computers From Taking Over". Medium/Backchannel. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- "Elon Musk launches Neuralink, a venture to merge the human brain with AI". The Verge. March 27, 2017. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
- Golson, Jordan (January 25, 2017). "Elon Musk: "Without tunnels, we will all be in traffic hell forever"". The Verge. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Elon Musk Will Begin Digging His "Boring Company" Tunnel in About A Month". Fortune. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Parnell, Brid-Aine. "Elon Musk Teases Traffic-Busting Tunneling Firm 'The Boring Co.'". Forbes. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Solon, Olivia (January 26, 2017). "Elon Musk to dig tunnel to ease traffic in LA, but he doesn't yet have permission" – via The Guardian.
- Mazza, Sandy. "Elon Musk wants to start digging a traffic-relieving tunnel in Hawthorne 'in a month or so'". Los Angeles Daily Times. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Chafkin, Max (February 16, 2017). "Elon Musk Is Really Boring". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
- Heathman, Amelia. "Elon Musk's boring machine has already built a 'test trench' in LA". Wired UK. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- Hanley, Steve. "Elon Musk Talks About His Vision Of The Future At TED2017". Gas2. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- "Elon Musk: The Way Of The Future". YouTube. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Team, The Transition (December 14, 2016). "President-Elect Trump Announces Additional Members of President's Strategic and Policy Forum". Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- "Elon Musk and the chief executive of Uber are now advising Donald Trump". Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- "Donald Trump Adds Elon Musk, Travis Kalanick, and Indra Nooyi to His Team of Advisers". December 14, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- OConnell, Justin (December 23, 2016). "Elon Musk, Appointed to Trump's Team of Advisories, Thinks Bitcoin Is a "Good Thing" - CryptoCoinsNews". CryptoCoinsNews. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Elon Musk just got more involved with Trump's administration". businessinsider.com. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "US quits Paris climate pact: Reaction from around the world following the US president's decision on the Paris accord". Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- "Elon Musk anouncing departing presidential councils on Twitter". Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Wattenberg, Ben. "Elon Musk and the frontier of Technology". Think Tank. PBS.org. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- Strange, Adario (November 5, 2016). "Elon Musk thinks universal income is answer to automation taking human jobs". mashable.com. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- "Elon Musk on Trump presidency: 'I don't think he's the right guy'". businessinsider.in. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Lee, Dave (January 26, 2017). "Elon Musk: I'm Trump's voice of reason". BBC News. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Elon Musk, SpaceX Founder, Battles Entrenched Rivals Over NASA Contracts". The Huffington Post. February 20, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- "Obama and Congress at odds over Elon Musk". fightforvotes.com. Archived from the original on May 30, 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Timothy P. Carney, "Carney: Green stimulus profiteer comes under IRS scrutiny", WashingtonExaminer.com, October 14, 2012.
- "SpaceX blasts off literally and politically". Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
- Salant, Jonathan D. (September 27, 2013). "Billionaires Battle as Bezos-Musk Companies Vie for Launch Pad". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Steven Kovach, "Elon Musk Says He Quit Mark Zuckerberg's PAC Because It Was Too Cynical", BusinessInsider.com, May 31, 2013.
- Becker, Sean (December 11, 2013). "Elon Musk Donated to Anti-Science Republicans". Mic. Policy.Mic. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Werber, Cassie. "Elon Musk says tax-free carbon is "the dumbest experiment in history"". Quartz. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
- "Taxpayer Subsidies Helped Tesla Motors, So Why Does Elon Musk Slam Them?". Mother Jones. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Harkinson, Josh (September 2013). "Taxpayer Subsidies Helped Tesla Motors, So Why Does Elon Musk Slam Them?". Mother Jones. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Hirsch, Jerry (May 30, 2015). "Elon Musk's growing empire is fuelled by billion in government subsidies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- "Going to Mars with Elon Musk". OnInnovation.com. June 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
Going To Mars (alt link retrieved Feb 2, 2018)
- "Elon Musk and Rainn Wilson discuss colonizing Mars, global warming, and the fear of failure". The Verge. March 19, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- "Elon Musk, CEO and CTO, Space Exploration Technologies Corp (SpaceX), Peter Diamandis, CEO, X Prize Foundation and John Doerr, Venture Capital, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers". YouTube. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Anderson, Ross (September 30, 2014). "The Elon Musk Interview on Mars Colonization". Aeon. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Gibbs, Samuel (October 27, 2014). "Elon Musk: artificial intelligence is our biggest existential threat". The Guardian. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- "Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking think we should ban killer robots". Washington Post. July 28, 2015. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Kosoff, Maya (January 15, 2015). "Elon Musk Is Donating Million To Keep Killer Robots From Taking Over The World". Business Insider. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- Muoio, Danielle (December 11, 2015). "Elon Musk just announced a new artificial intelligence research company". Tech Insider. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Hern, Alex (June 18, 2014). "Elon Musk says he invested in DeepMind over 'Terminator' fears". Retrieved June 10, 2015 – via The Guardian.
- "We are living in a computer simulation, Elon Musk says". The Independent. June 2, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- Kelly, Éanna (23 Nov 2017). "Artificial Intelligence: World is astonishingly pessimistic,' says EU research commissioner". sciencebusiness.net. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Loizos, Connie (19 Jul 2017). "This famous roboticist doesn't think Elon Musk understands AI". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Chollet, François (16 Jul 2017). "AI/ML makes a few existing threats worse. Unclear that it creates any new ones". @fchollet. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Domingos, Pedro (16 Jul 2017). "One word: sigh". @pmddomingos. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Brown, Mike (15 Dec 2017). "Elon Musk Sparks Heated Twitter Debate Over Boring Company's Vision". Inverse. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Hunt, Elle (21 Dec 2017). "'I met my wife on a train platform': Twitter responds to Elon Musk with positive public transport stories". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Marshall, Aarian (14 Dec 2017). "Elon Musk Really Doesn't Like Mass Transit Systems He's Trying to Build". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Toderian, Brent (18 Dec 2017). "Elon Musk may say bad things about public transit, but I asked Twitter to share their #GreatThingsThatHappenedOnTransit! As usual, Twitter responded in spades. Here are some of my favourites for posterity - please enjoy & share!". @BrentToderian. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Hamilton-Smith, Lexy (23 Mar 2017). "Brisbane's urban planning 'average' and making residents sick, expert says". ABC News. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
- Morris, David Z. (16 Dec 2017). "Elon Musk Calls Transit Expert 'An Idiot,' Says Public Transport 'Sucks'". Fortune. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Walker, Jarrett (14 Dec 2017). "In cities, @elonmusk's hatred of sharing space with strangers is a luxury (or pathology) that only the rich can afford. Letting him design cities is the essence of elite projection". @humantransit. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Walker, Jarrett (31 Jul 2017). "The Dangers of Elite Projection — Human Transit". Human Transit. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Musk, Elon (14 Dec 2017). "You're an idiot". @elonmusk. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Musk, Elon (14 Dec 2017). "Sorry". @elonmusk. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Musk, Elon (14 Dec 2017). "Meant to say "sanctimonious idiot"". @elonmusk. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Krugman, Paul (19 Dec 2017). "Elon Musk's idea of a cogent argument: "You're an idiot"http://fortune.com/2017/12/16/elon-musk-public-transport/ …". @paulkrugman. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Matt Hardigree. "Elon Musk Explains How He Wrecked An Uninsured Million McLaren F1". Jalopnik.
- Wayne, Leslie (February 5, 2006). "A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before". The New York Times.
- FlightAware. "Aircraft Registration N900SK". Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Chris Woodyard,"Tesla's Elon Musk buys 007's sub to make it real", USAToday.com, October 18, 2013; accessed November 13, 2013.
- "Tosca Musk profile at". Musk entertainment.
- Achenbach, Joel. "Elon Musk Wants to Go to Mars" National Geographic November 2016. p. 41.
- "Elon Musk and SolarCity Donate Solar Power Project to Coastal Response Center in Alabama". Enhanced Online News. Business Wire.
- "Elon Musk Donates Solar Power Project to Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan". BusinessWire.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- "What it's like to own a Tesla Model S – Part 2 – The Oatmeal". theoatmeal.com.
- Greg Kumparak. "Elon Musk Donates Million to the Oatmeal's Nikola Tesla Museum". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Elon Musk donates M to keep AI beneficial, Future of Life Institute, 2015, retrieved January 20, 2015
- "Elon Musk Donates M To Make Sure AI Doesn't Go The Way of Skynet". Mashable. 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Elon Musk". XPRIZE. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Kroll, Luisa (April 19, 2012). "The Giving Pledge Signs on 12 More Wealthy Americans Including Tesla's Elon Musk And Home Depot's Arthur Blank". Forbes.
- Durand Streisand, Elizabeth. "A Look at Elon Musk's Rocky Romantic History". Yahoo. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- Junod, Justine (November 14, 2012). "Elon Musk: Triumph of His Will". Esquire. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- Justine Musk | TEDxUIUC (posted Jun 1, 2017)
- Elliott, Hannah. "Elon Musk – In Photos: Forbes Life Elon Musk". Forbes. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Lai, Jennifer (January 19, 2012). "Elon Musk Divorce: Announces Split From Talulah Riley On Twitter". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "Elon Musk Divorce: Announces Split From Talulah Riley On Twitter", The Huffington Post, January 19, 2012.
- "Billionaire Elon Musk's wife files for divorce", Mashable.com, March 21, 2016.
- Kimble, Lindsay (November 18, 2016). "lon Musk and Talulah Riley Are Divorced for a Second Time". People. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Ross, Martha (August 6, 2017). "Tesla CEO Elon Musk breaks up with Amber Heard, report says". The Mercury News. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
- Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (7 June 2017). "A little red wine, vintage record, some Ambien ... and magic!" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 11 January 2018 – via Twitter.
- Matyszczyk, Chris (June 7, 2017). "Elon Musk's strange, strange Ambien tweet". CNET. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
- Tan, Yvette (June 7, 2017). "Elon Musk's weird Ambien tweets are back". Mashable. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
- Musk, Elon Reeve; Ferguson, Joshua Willard; Zalan, Daryl; Van Dyke, Christopher Hugo (November 12, 2013), United States Patent: 8579635 - Funnel shaped charge inlet, archived from the original on June 2, 2017, retrieved September 23, 2016
- Musk, Elon Reeve; Ferguson, Joshua Willard; Zalan, Daryl; Van Dyke, Christopher Hugo (March 10, 2015), United States Patent: D724031 - Vehicle charge inlet, archived from the original on June 2, 2017, retrieved September 23, 2016
- Musk, Elon Reeve; von Holzhausen, Franz; Lee, Bernard; Imai, David Tadashi (May 28, 2013), United States Patent: D683268 - Vehicle, archived from the original on June 2, 2017, retrieved September 23, 2016
- Musk, Elon Reeve; von Holzhausen, Franz; Lee, Bernard (March 19, 2013), United States Patent: D678154 - Vehicle door, archived from the original on June 2, 2017, retrieved September 23, 2016
- Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power And Propulsion. The National Academies Press. 2006. ISBN 9780309180108. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Rocket Man". R&D. September 4, 2007. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- Chafkin, Max (December 1, 2007). "Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk". inc.com.
- "Tesla Roadster". Index. 2007. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012.
- "Tesla Motors team". Tesla Motors.
- "SpaceX successfully launches Falcon 1 to orbit". Space Exploration Technologies Corp. 2008.
- "Connie Awards". National Wildlife Federation. 2008. Archived from the original on June 29, 2009.
- Michels, Jennifer (March 4, 2009). "Aviation Week Reveals Laureate Award Winners". Aviation Week.
- "Space Community Gathers at National Space Society's ISDC 2009" (Press release). National Space Society. June 17, 2009.
- "Automotive Executive of the Year". DNV Certification. 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Favreau, Jon (April 29, 2010). "The 2010 Time 100". Time.
- "Barron Hilton and Elon Musk honoured with the highest FAI awards". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. December 16, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "Living Legend of Aviation Awards". Kittie Hawk Air Academy. 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Caltech Elects Two Innovators to Board of Trustees".
- "Trustee List". The California Institute of Technology. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- "Space Foundation Survey Reveals Broad Range of Space Heroes". Archived from the original on August 15, 2012.
- Smith, Jacquelyn (February 14, 2011). "America's 20 Most Powerful CEOs 40 And Under". Forbes. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
To make this list, you had to be the chief executive of one of the 20 biggest publicly traded companies in the U.S. (as of Feb. 11, by market capitalization) with a CEO aged 40 or under.
- Dula, Art (June 16, 2011). "Heinlein Prize Honors Elon Musk of SpaceX". The Heinlein Prize. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015.
- "2011 Churchill Club Awards".
- "2012 RAeS Gold Medal". Archived from the original on November 28, 2012.
- Jonathan Welsh (November 21, 2013). "Tesla's Elon Musk is Fortune Businessperson of the Year". The Wall Street Journal.
- "IEEE Honorary Membership Recipients" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "Social Concepts, Inc: We connect people ™". socialconcepts.com. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Elon Musk Named Most Influential Person In The Car Business Teslarati, Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- "The top 10 business visionaries creating value for the world". Business Insider. Business Insider Inc.
- "Philanthropists & Social Entrepreneurs Top 200: From Elon Musk to Melinda Gates, These Are the Most Influential Do-Gooders in the World". Richtopia. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- "200 most influential philanthropists in the world". Naij. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Graduation show, Art Center College of Design". Cumulusassociation.org. November 23, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Surrey celebrates its honorary graduates[permanent dead link], Surrey celebrates graduation 2015, Surrey Graduate, Surrey Alumni Society (Autumn/Winter 2009)[dead link]
- SEAS Celebrates Class of 2015, Honors Innovators Elon Musk and Dean Kamen, 314th commencement (Spring 2015)
- Tate, Ryan. "10 Awkward Hollywood Cameos by Tech Founders". Wired.com. Wired.com. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- "Elon Musk SpaceX Tesla on the Simpsons – Business Insider". Business Insider. January 27, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- "Tesla CEO Elon Musk To Appear on Upcoming Episode of the Big Bang Theory - CBS.com". CBS. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Field, Kyle. "Tesla Stars In "Racing Extinction" Documentary". CleanTechnica. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- Bova, Dan. "'Why Him?' Director on Elon Musk's Amazing 'I Can't Come to Work Today' Excuse". entrepreneur.com. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "'DC's Legends of Tomorrow' Power Rankings, Week 2: Burn, Baby, Burn – Observer". Observer. January 29, 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- Boyle, Alan. "'Star Trek: Discovery' ranks Elon Musk alongside Wright Brothers and warp drive". Geekwire.com. Geek Wire. Archived from the original on October 13, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Mack, Eric. "How Elon Musk goes down in history with the Wright Brothers". CNET.com. CNET. Archived from the original on October 13, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Etherington, Darrell. "Elon Musk gets a nod as a space pioneer from 'Star Trek: Discovery'". Techcrunch.com. Tech Crunch. Archived from the original on October 13, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- "Neon Musk by Hat Films". Bandcamp. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- McCarthy, Tyler. "Young Sheldon Episode 6 recap: Sheldon discovers physics". Foxnews.com. Fox News. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- Vance, Ashlee. Elon Musk: How the Billionaire CEO of SpaceX and Tesla is Shaping our Future. Virgin Books (2015). ISBN 9780753555620. Afterthoughts by Ashlee Vance
- Elon Musk on IMDb
- SolarCity official website
- SpaceX official website
- Tesla official website
- Paypal official website
- Open AI official website
- Gimien, Mark (August 17, 1999). "Fast Track". Salon.
- Statement of Elon Musk at House Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee Hearings on the Future Market for Commercial Space (2005)
- History of PayPal, gawker.com (2007)
- Bailey, Brandon (2010). "Elon Musk: Will his Silicon Valley story have a Hollywood ending?". San Jose Mercury News.
- "Science Fiction Books That Inspired Elon Musk", MediaBistro.com, March 19, 2013.
- "Elon Musk’s Space Dream Almost Killed Tesla" (Bloomberg, 2015)
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- "An interview with Elon Musk". HobbySpace. August 5, 2003.
- "Lift off with Elon Musk". Carte Blanche. September 4, 2005. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007.
- Bergin, Chris (January 20, 2006). "SpaceX's Musk and Thompson Q and A". nasaspaceflight.com.
- Video interview of Elon Musk by Zadi Diaz of EPIC FU, June 17, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2014
- Gray, Sadie (January 4, 2009). "Forget the bungalow, retire to Mars". Sunday Times. London, UK. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Musk profile onInnovation.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014
- An interview at the Founders Showcase, August 5, 2010
- Elon Musk: 'I'm planning to retire to Mars', video interview for The Guardian, August 1, 2010
- 60 Minutes interview; March 18, 2012.
- A 20 minute interview about sending humans to Mars with BBC's Jonathan Amos, March 20, 2012
- Elon Musk: The mind behind Tesla, SpaceX, SolarCity, ted.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014
- Musk, Elon (January 6, 2015). "I am Elon Musk, CEO/CTO of a rocket company, AMA!". Reddit.com. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- Elon Musk Powers Up: Inside Tesla's Billion Gigafactory Fast Company, November 2015
- Elon Musk Profiled, Bloomberg Risk Takers (45min) - on YouTube
- Elon Musk: The future we're building — and boring, ted.com. Retrieved May 7, 2017