Carl Ferdinand Cori
Carl Ferdinand Cori
|Born||Carl Ferdinand Cori
December 5, 1896
|Died||October 20, 1984
|Known for||Metabolism of carbohydrates|
|Spouse(s)||Gerty Cori (m. 1920; her death 1957)|
|Institutions||Washington University in St. Louis|
Carl Ferdinand Cori, ForMemRS (December 5, 1896 – October 20, 1984) was a Czech-American biochemist and pharmacologist born in Prague (then in Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic) who, together with his wife Gerty Cori and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, received a Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of how glycogen (animal starch) – a derivative of glucose – is broken down and resynthesized in the body, for use as a store and source of energy. In 2004 both were designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark in recognition of their work that elucidated carbohydrate metabolism. 
Education and early life
Carl was the son of Carl Isidor Cori[de] (1865, Brüx (Czech: Most), R.Bohemia, Imp.Austria–1954, Vienna), a zoologist, and Maria née Lippich[de] (1870, Graz–1922, Prague), a daughter of the Italian-Bohemian/Austrian physician Ferdinand (Franz) Lippich[de] (1838, Padova–1913, Prague).
The Cori[de] Family came from the Papal State (later Republical Rome, today's Central Italy) to the Royal Bohemian Crownland, Austrian Circle (Monarchical Austria centered on the Archducal Austria) at the end of the 17th century. Carl Ferdinand's grandfather Eduard Cori (1812–1889) was an administrative officer and beekeeper in Brüx, and grandmother was Rosina Trinks (?–1909). Carl Ferdinand's younger sister Margarete Cori (born 1905) was a lecturer of Prague and the wife of the Bohemian geneticist Felix Mainx (1900, Prague–1983, Vienna).
He grew up in Trieste, where his father Carl Isidor was the director of the Marine Biological Station. In late 1914 the Cori family moved to Prague and Carl entered the medical school of Charles University in Prague. While studying there he met Gerty Theresa Radnitz. He was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army and served in the ski corps, and later was transferred to the sanitary corps, for which he set up a laboratory in Trieste. At the end of the war Carl completed his studies, graduating with Gerty in 1920. Carl and Gerty married that year and worked together in clinics in Vienna.
Carl was invited to Graz to work with Otto Loewi to study the effect of the vagus nerve on the heart (Loewi would receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936 for this work). While Carl was in Graz, Gerty remained in Vienna. A year later Carl was offered a position at the State Institute for the Study of Malignant Diseases (now the Roswell Park Cancer Institute) in Buffalo, New York and the Cori's moved to Buffalo. In 1928, they became naturalized citizens of the United States.
While at the Institute the Coris’ research focused on carbohydrate metabolism, leading to the definition of the Cori cycle in 1929. In 1931 Carl accepted a position at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. Carl joined as professor of pharmacology and in 1942 was made professor of biochemistry. In St. Louis, the Cori's continued their research on glycogen and glucose and began to describe glycogenolysis, identifying and synthesizing the important enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. For these discoveries, they received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947.
Gerty died in 1957 and Carl married Anne Fitz-Gerald Jones in 1960. He stayed on at Washington University until 1966, when he retired as chair of the biochemistry department. He was appointed visiting professor of Biological Chemistry at Harvard University while maintaining a laboratory space at the Massachusetts General Hospital, where he pursued research in genetics. From 1968 to 1983 he collaborated with noted geneticist Salomé Glüecksohn-Waelsch of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, until the 1980s when illness prevented him from continuing. In 1976 Carl received the Laurea honoris causa in Medicine from the University of Trieste. Carl shares a star with Gerty on the St. Louis Walk of Fame
Awards and honors
In addition to winning the Nobel Prize, Cori won the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1946 and in 1959, the Austrian Decoration for Science and Art. Cori was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1950 and the Carl Cori Endowed Professorship at Washington University is named in his honor, currently held by Colin Nichols.
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- Kornberg, A. (2001). "Remembering our teachers". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (1): 3–11. PMID 11134064.
- Cohn, M. (1992). "Carl Ferdinand Cori: December 5, 1896-October 19, 1984". Biographical memoirs. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.). 61: 79–109. PMID 11616228.
- Houssay, B. A. (1956). "Carl F. And Gerty T. Cori". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 20 (1): 11–16. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(56)90255-4. PMID 13315342.
- Cech, P. (2008). "Nobel Prize laureates". Casopis lekaru ceskych. 147 (7): 410–412. PMID 18678102.
- Cech, P. (2001). "The Coris, a married couple native to Prague and Nobel laureates". Casopis lekaru ceskych. 140 (1): 26–30. PMID 11242981.
- Shampo, M. A.; Kyle, R. A. (2000). "Carl Cori—Nobel Laureate in Medicine or Physiology". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 75 (12): 1274. doi:10.4065/75.12.1274. PMID 11126836.
- Raju, T. N. (1999). "The Nobel Chronicles. 1947: Carl Ferdinand Cori (1896-1984); Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori (1896-1957); and Bernardo Alberto Houssay (1887-1971)". Lancet. 353 (9158): 1108. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(05)76476-x. PMID 10199387.
- Sulek, K. (1968). "Nobel prize for Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerta Theresa Cori in 1947 for discovery of the course of catalytic metabolism of glycogen. Prize for Alberto Bernardo Houssay for discovery on the role of the hypophysis in carbohydrate metabolism". Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960). 21 (17): 1609–1610. PMID 4882480.
- "Carl and Gerti Cori and Carbohydrate Metabolism". American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Kenéz, J. (1977). "Liver glycogen and enzyme research (Carl Ferdinand CPORI)". Orvosi hetilap. 118 (8): 463–465. PMID 320540.
- Cori, C. F. (1969). "The Call of Science". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 38: 1–20. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.38.070169.000245. PMID 4896237.
- Carl Ferdinand Cori — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences
- Ihde, A.J. Cori, Carl Ferdinand, and Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori. American National Biography Online Feb 2000.
- Carl and Gerti Cori and Carbohydrate Metabolism Archived 2013-01-12 at Archive.is from American Chemical Society National Historic Chemical Landmarks
- Dolezal, Helmut, "Cori, Carl Isidor" in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 3 (1957), p. 360
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- de:Carl Isidor Cori#Familie
- Ginsberg, Judah (September 21, 2004). "Carl and Gerty Cori and Carbohydrate Metabolism". National Historic Chemical Landmark. American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- St. Louis Walk of Fame. "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees". stlouiswalkoffame.org. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 73. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Colin G. Nichols named Carl F. Cori Professor, Washington University in St. Louis, 2007-02-21